Altered cells

  • Created by: evepoag
  • Created on: 12-10-22 16:33
What is pathophysiology?
changes to the normal anatomy and physiology due to illness or disease, and how it affects the body
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What is altered cell biology?
gradual changes in the structure and function of cells in response to harmful external influences
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What is disease?
homeostasis has been lost, signs and symptoms are evident
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What is an illness?
the body is no longer in a state of normal health, ie: the body has adapted to the disease
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What happens when cell integrity is threatened?
the cell will try to adapt to try and function despite the threat
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What happens if there isn't enough reserve available or the body doesn't detect the abnormality, and so the cell doesn't adapt?
The cell dies
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What do diseases cause in relation to cells?
Cell injury

This causes them to stop working properly, or cell death
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If there IS enough cellular reserve available but the body does not detect the abnormality, what does the cell adapt by?
1. Atrophy
2. Hypertrophy
3. Hyperplasia
4. Metaplasia
5. Dysplasia
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What is atrophy and give 3 examples of why it's caused?
A reversible reduction in the size of the cell

It occurs due to disease, insufficient blood flow, malnutrition
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What is hypertrophy and why is it caused?
An enlargement of cells due to an increased workload

It can occur from normal physiological conditions, ie: working out, or abnormal pathologic conditions, ie: enlarged heart
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What is hyperplasia?
An increase in the number of cells
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What is dysplasia?
Deranged cell growth of specific tissues, resulted in abnormal size, shape and appearance

These precede cancer
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What is aetiology?
the cause of a disease
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What is an idiopathic disease?
a disease with no known cause
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What is the disease's development called?
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What are the 2 types of diseases and what are they?
1. Communicable - caused by pathogens and can be transferred from one person to another

2. Non-communicable - not transferred between people or organisms
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Name 3 non-communicable diseases
1. cancer
2. diabetes
3. heart disease
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What are the 7 normal disease stages?
(split into 2 cards)
1. exposure/injury - tissue is injured
2. incubation period - no signs/symptoms
3. prodromal period - mild non-specific signs/symptoms
4. acute phase - full intensity and complications arise. If patient can still function at baseline, this is called subcl
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What are the 7 normal disease stages?
5. remission - reduce signs/symptoms, commonly followed by another acute phase
6. convalescence - rehabilitation stage, patient progresses toward recovery after disease termination
7. recovery - patient regains health and normal function, no signs/symptom
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How can the body react to stress?
Successfully adapting to the change or failing to adapt
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If the body fails to adapt, what happens?
Disease may result
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What are the 4 stages of adaption to a stressful event?
1. alarm - stressor upsets homeostasis
2. resistance - body fights back by adjusting to stress
3. recovery - rest allows for enhanced adaption
4. exhaustion - no rest results in lack of adaption, followed by injury and cell death
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Communication controlled by the nervous and endocrine systems aim to do what?
redirect energy to the organ that is most affected by the stress
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In which stress adaptive phase does the body's fight-or-flight response occur?
Resistance phase
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What is cell injury and what are the 4 types?
Cells adapt to injury by using their reserves

1. Toxins
2. Infection
3. Physical Injury
4. Deficit
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What is cell degeneration?
The pathological condition that causes cells to change in structure and function

Usually affects the metabolically active cells
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Where does non-lethal cell degeneration happen?
In the cytoplasm
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What causes cell degeneration?
Swelling, atrophy
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What does cell ageing cause?
Loss of structure (atrophy), and loss of function: (hypertrophy or hyperplasia)
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Name an intrinsic factor causing toxic injuries to cells
Hypersensitive reactions
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Name an extrinsic factor causing toxic injuries to cells
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How does infection affect cell integrity and cause cell injury?
Organisms affect the cell integrity by interfering with cell synthesis (growth), producing mutant cells

ie: HIV
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What are the 4 types of infectious organisms?
1. viral
2. fungal
3. protozoal
4. bacterial
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Name 2 major types of physical injury causing cell injury
1. radiation
2. surgery
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Give examples of deficits causing cell injury
Deficit of water, oxygen, nutrients, poor temperatures
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How do deficits cause cell injury?
they inhibit cell synthesis, leading to cell death
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Why is fluid and electrolyte management vital?
it maintains tissue perfusion and balance of normal plasma components
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What is dehydration?
more fluid lost than taken in
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What is hypovolemia?
decrease in blood volume resulting from a loss of blood and/or plasma
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What is fluid overload?
too much fluid volume in the body

overloads the circulation, due to circulatory problems or fluid therapy
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What is oedema?
abnormal fluid retention in interstitial tissues

NOT a fluid excess problem, but a distribution problem
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What are the 3 acid-base electrolyte imbalances?
1. Respiratory acidosis
2. Metabolic acidosis
3. Respiratory alkalosis
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What does hyper or hyponatremia affect?
sodium levels
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What does hyper or hypokalaemia affect?
potassium levels
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What makes up calcium?
phosphate and magnesium
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is altered cell biology?


gradual changes in the structure and function of cells in response to harmful external influences

Card 3


What is disease?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is an illness?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What happens when cell integrity is threatened?


Preview of the front of card 5
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