ALL OCR A2 Physics Definitions

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Random errors
Random errors are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities differ from the mean value with different magnitudes and directions.
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Systematic errors
Systematic errors are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities are displaced from the true value by fixed magnitude and in the same direction.
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Accuracy
Accuracy is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with the true value.
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Precision
Precision is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with each other.
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Internal energy
The internal energy is the sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies of the particles composing the system.
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The specific latent heat of fusion
The specific latent heat of fusion, Lf , is defined as the amount of thermal energy required per unit mass to change a substance from the solid phase to the liquid phase without any change in temperature
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The specific latent heat of vaporisation
The specific latent heat of vaporisation, Lv, is defined as the amount of thermal energy required per unit mass to change a substance from the liquid phase to the vapor phase without any change in temperature.
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First law of thermodynamics
First law of thermodynamics state that the increase in internal energy in a system is equal to the sum of the heat supplied to system and work done on the system.
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Boyle’s Law
Boyle’s Law states that, for a gas of fixed mass at constant temperature, the pressure (p) decreases in proportion to the increase of the volume (v) i.e. pv = constant
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Charles’ Law
Charles’ Law states that for a gas of fixed mass and constant pressure, the volume (v) increases proportionally with the temperature (T)
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The Pressure Law
The Pressure Law states that for a fixed mass of gas, with a constant volume, the pressure (p) will increase proportionally with temperature (T)
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Velocity
Velocity is the rate of change of its displacement with respect to time. Acceleration of an object is the rate of change of its velocity with respect to time.
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Speed
Speed is the rate of change of distance traveled with respect to time.
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Normal contact force
Normal contact force is a force perpendicular to the surface experienced by a body when it is in physical contact with something else.
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Hooke’s Law
Hooke’s Law states that within the limit of proportionality, the extension produced in a material is directly proportional to the load applied.
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The principle of moments
The principle of moments states that, when an object is in equilibrium, the sum of anticlockwise moments about any point equals the sum of clockwise moments about the same point.
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The moment of a force
The moment of a force is the product of the force and the perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the line of action of the force.
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A couple
A couple is a pair of forces, equal in magnitude but opposite in direction, whose lines of motion do not coincide.
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Centre of gravity
Centre of gravity is the point on an object through which the entire weight of the object may be considered to act.
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Stability
Stability of an object refers to its ability to return to its original position after it has been displaced from that position.
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Pressure
Pressure is force acting per unit area.
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Upthrust/buoyancy force
Upthrust/buoyancy force is an upward force on a body produced by the surrounding fluid (i.e., a liquid or a gas) in which it is fully or partially immersed, due to the pressure difference of the fluid between the top and bottom of the object.
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Archimedes’ Principle
Archimedes’ Principle states that the upthrust experienced by an object partially or entirely immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
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Newton’s first law of motion
Newton’s first law of motion states that a body will continue in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless an external resultant force acts on it.
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Newton’s second law
Newton’s second law states that the rate of change of momentum of a body is proportional to the resultant force acting on it and the change takes place in the direction of the force.
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Newton’s third law
Newton’s third law states that: If body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts a force of equal magnitude but in the opposite direction on body A.
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The principle of conservation of momentum
The principle of conservation of momentum states that the total momentum of a system of objects remains constant provided no resultant external force acts on the system.
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Card 2

Front

Systematic errors are errors of measurements in which the measured quantities are displaced from the true value by fixed magnitude and in the same direction.

Back

Systematic errors

Card 3

Front

Accuracy is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with the true value.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Precision is a measure of how close the results of an experiment agree with each other.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The internal energy is the sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies of the particles composing the system.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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