Language and gender - Theories

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1. How does Deborah Cameron support the deficit model?

  • Some terms are marked so power lies in the norm, which is the original form.
  • Women's terms are marked so power lies in the norm, which is the male form.
  • Agrees with Lakoff.
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2. What reasoning did Trudgill suggest behind men using low prestige pronunciation?

  • They were of a lower class.
  • They wanted to seem friendly.
  • They were seeking covert prestige by appearing "tough" or "down to earth".
  • They were seeking overt prestige by appearing "tough" or "down to earth".

3. Which of the following is NOT one of Jennifer Coates' categories for all-female conversation?

  • Scandal
  • Chatting
  • House Talk
  • Gossip
  • Bitching

4. What did O'Barr and Atkins find?

  • Status was more significant than gender in language differences, as shown by courtroom cases.
  • Gender was the cause of language differences, not power or status, in the courtroom cases studied.
  • Status and gender caused language differences to the same significance, in courtroom cases.

5. Who proposed the Deficit theory?

  • Robin Lakoff
  • Deborah Tannen
  • Jennifer Coates

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