Language and gender - Theories

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1. What did Pamela Fishman propose?

  • Mixed-sex conversations don't fail.
  • Mixed-sex conversation sometimes fails, not because of female-talk, but because of how men respond, or don't respond.
  • Mixed-sex conversations fail.
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2. What reasoning did Trudgill suggest behind men using low prestige pronunciation?

  • They were of a lower class.
  • They wanted to seem friendly.
  • They were seeking covert prestige by appearing "tough" or "down to earth".
  • They were seeking overt prestige by appearing "tough" or "down to earth".

3. Which theory did Zimmerman and West propose?

  • Dominace theory
  • Defecit theory
  • Difference theory

4. What is "verbal hygiene"?

  • Deborah Cameron says that women have been instructed in the proper ways of talking.
  • Deborah Tannen says that women have been instructed in the proper ways of talking.
  • Deborah Jones says that women have been instructed in the proper ways of talking.

5. What did Beattie's theory suggest?

  • That the work of Zimmerman and West is not reliable.
  • That Zimmerman and West's theory is incorrect.
  • That women were more dominant than men.

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