ALL EDUCATION

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Douglas
Hempel Jorgenson
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Rist
Becker
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Cicourel and Kitsuse
Lacey
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Ball
Gilbourn and Youdell
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Bartlett
Fitz
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Douglas
Bernstein and Young
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Bernstein
Douglas
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Sugarman
Bourdieu
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Gewritz
Internal
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Bereiter and Engelmann
Gillbourn and Mirza
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Arnot
Sewell
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Moynihan
Pryce
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Khan
Evans
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Keddie
Palmer
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Internal
Wood
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External
Gillbourn and Youdell
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Wright
Archer
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Mirza
Fuller
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Troyna and Williams
Sewell
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Ball
Stone
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Gillbourn
Strand
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McRobbie
Francis and Skelton
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Mitsos and Brown
Shapre
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Arnot
Mitsos and Brown
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Lobban
Weiner
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Mac an Ghaill
Epstein and Francis
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Boaler
Gorard
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Mitsos and Brown
Spender
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Francis
Stanworth
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Jackson
Parsons
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Durkheim
Davis and Moore
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Althusser
Bowles and Gintis
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Chubb and Moe
Willis
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Material deprivation
Cultural Deprivation
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Cultural capital
Pupil subcultures
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Labelling and Self-fulfilling prophecy
Marketisation
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Cultural Deprivation
Material Deprivation
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Racism in wider society
Labelling and teacher racism
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Pupil identities
Pupil subcultures
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Institutional Racism
Ethnocentric Curriculum
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Exams, setting and streaming
The impact of feminism
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Changes in the family
Changes in employment
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Perceptions and Ambitions
Gender stereotypes
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Equal opportunities policies
Role models in schools
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GCSE and Coursework
Teacher Attention
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Selection and League Tables.
Functionalists
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Marxists
New Right
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Neo Marxists
External
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Internal
Found that teachers judged pupils according to how closely they fitted an image of the ‘ideal pupil’. Found that WC children were often given a negative label as they were further away from the ideal.
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Found that even when students had similar grades, those from middle class backgrounds were more likely to be labelled as having college potential.
Studied primary schools and found that teachers used information about children’s home background and appearance - placed in separate groups. Fast learners - middle class, seated closer to the teacher. Other groups seated further away, working class.
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Two primary schools, looked at teacher’s image of ideal pupil. Working class area primary school, ideal pupil was quiet and passive (behaviour). Middle class area primary school - few discipline problems, ideal pupil based on personality and ability
Found that children placed in lower streams at the age of 8 suffered a decline in IQ by the age of 11.
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Differentiation and Polarisation. Hightown Boys grammar school, found that streaming had polarised boys into 2 subcultures. A pro school, largely MC - labelled as high achievers, and an anti-school, largely WC - labelled as low achievers, naughty
Studied a comp school removing streaming. Found that as school moved towards mixed ability groups, anti-school subcultures decline, but was still differentiation, teachers labelled pupils. MC more likely labelled as academically able.
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School league tables = schools focus on pupils with 5 A*-C potential, results in educational triage – ‘those who can pass’ ‘those with potential’ & ‘hopeless cases’. WC & black students often labelled as ‘hopeless cases’, leads to SFP.
Once a school has good position in the league tables, becomes over-subscribed. Leads to cream skimming – selecting higher ability students, & silt-shifting – offloading those who get poor results.
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Creating the right image – some schools try to create a ‘traditional image’ to attract middle class parents e.g grant maintained school spend £10,000 on pipe organ.
WC scored lower on ability tests – WC parents less likely to support intellectual development through reading with them etc.
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MC mothers more likely to choose toys that encourage thinking and reasoning skills, preparing them for school.
Language – restricted code = WC, elaborate code = MC. Elaborate gives advantage in education system.
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WC parents less likely to visit schools, less ambitious and less interested.
WC subculture has 4 main features that lead to barrier to success, fatalism, collectivism, present time orientation and immediate gratification.
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MC parents more interested, more educational experiences, school devalues WC culture as ‘rough’ and inferior.
MC parents – privileged skilled choosers, appeal against school allocation, share same language as teachers, can pay for public transport – better schools.
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Intellectual and Linguistic skills – language spoken by low income African-Caribbean families is inadequate for educational success.
Intellectual and Linguistic skills – note that Indian pupils still do very well despite having English as a second language.
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Attitudes and values – suggests that the media created a negative role model for black pupils, e.g. ‘Ultra-Tough Ghetto Superstar’
Family structure – not absence of black fathers as role models that leads to underachievement, but lack of nurturing tough love, therefore boys seek it through gangs – anti school culture. Peer pressure greatest barrier to success.
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Family structure – lack of male role model for black children. Mothers struggle financially, leads children to underachieve at school, become inadequate parents themselves.
Family structure – Asians high achievers because culture is more resistant to racism, black culture is less cohesive and less resistant. Leads to low self-esteem.
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Describes Asian families as stress ridden, controlling attitude towards children, especially girls.
Street culture in white WC can also be brutal, and young people need to learn to withstand intimidation.
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Argues that ethnic minority children underachieve because of ethnocentric curriculum.
Almost half of EM children live in low income houses. Twice as likely to be unemployed. EM households 3x as likely to be homeless.
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Sent 3 closely matched letters to 1000 job vacancies, but altered names to suggest different ethnic groups. 1 in 16 EM offered interview. 1 in 9 whites offered interview.
Studied black pupils and found teachers were quicker to discipline them than others for same behaviour. Pupils tended to respond negatively. Felt teachers picked on them.
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Studied multi ethnic primary school – found teachers held ethnocentric views – left Asians out of class discussions, used simple language. Asians felt marginalised.
Teachers define students as having stereotypical ethnic identities. Ideal = white mc, pathologised = Asian, success through hard work, demonised = black or white WC, unintelligent
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Studied ambitious black girls – teachers discouraged them from being ambitious, put them off pursuing professional careers. Girls were selective about who they asked for help.
Most black girls in London comp were put in lower sets, but particular group of girls fought against negative label.
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Individual racism – prejudiced views from individuals, and institutional racism – discrimination that is built into the way institutions operate.
Racism is not powerful enough to prevent pupils from achieving, it is the anti-school subcultures and peers that we need to focus on.
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British curriculum is ethnocentric because it gives priority to white culture and English language. Image of non-whites as inferior could lead to low self-esteem.
Black students do not have low self-esteem.
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Argues that marketisation has given schools great choice to select pupils and this puts ethnic minorities at a disadvantage.
Black-white achievement gap in maths and science tests as a result of black students being unrepresented in entry to higher tiers.
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Rist

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Becker

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Cicourel and Kitsuse

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Ball

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Bartlett

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