Alkanes

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  • Created by: Hope
  • Created on: 29-05-14 12:58
What is crude oil made of?
A mixture of compounds called hydrocarbons
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What are hydrocarbons?
Compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms only, joined together by covalent bonds
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What is the main hydrocarbon in crude oil?
Alkanes
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What is the general formula for alkanes?
CnH2n + 2
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What is distillation?
A process that can be used to seperate a pure liquid from a mixture of liquids
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What is the distillation process to seperate ethanol from water?
The mixture is heated in a flask, the ethanol has a lower boiling point so it evaporates first, the ethanol vapour is vooled and condensed to form a liquid
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What is fractional distillation?
A tall column that contains the mixture with several condensers coming off at different heigh so that the mixture seperates into different fractions
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How does fractional distillation work?
It is hot at the bottom and cool at the top, substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom and the other substances consense on the way to the top
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Complete this sentence: As you go up the fractioning coumn the hydrocarbons have...
Lower boiling points, they flow more easily and higher flammibility
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What are the conditions needed for complete combustion?
There needs to be plenty of air for the burning fuel to react with
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What is complete combustion for carbon?
When carbon is oxidised to cabron dioxide
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When does incomplete combustion occur?
When there is an unsufficent air for complete combustion
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What happens when incomplete combustion occurs with hydrogen?
It is still oxidised to water but carbon monoxide forms instead of cabron dioxide, which is toxic, particulates are also rleelased
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What is the problems with particulates being released during incomplete combustion?
They reduce the amount of sunlight reaching the earths surface
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What is complete combustion for hydrocarbons?
Hydrogen is oxidised to water
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What are the problems with acid rain?
It can damage buildings and statues, it damages the waxy layer on leaves - makes it more difficult for them to absorb minerals, makes lakes and rivers acidic
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Coal and most hydrocarbon fuels naturally contain some sulfur compounds, what happens when this fuel is burnt?
The sulfur it contains is oxidised to sulfur dioxide which dissolves in wate to form an acidic solution
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What can we do to stop sulfur dioxide being in our fuel?
We can remove it before it is used
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What happens when nitrogen and oxygen from the air react together at high temperatures?
They produce various oxides of nitrogen that can cause acid rain
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What are biofuels made of?
Plant materials
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What is biodiesel made of?
Rapeseed oil and other plant oils
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How is bioethanol made?
Fermenting sugars from sugar cane, wheat and other plants
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What are the ethical concerns of using biolfuels?
Crops should be used for food not making biofuel, could cause inceease in price of food
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What are the advantages of making biofuels?
More people are needed, increased income for famers, lower fuel prices
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are hydrocarbons?

Back

Compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atoms only, joined together by covalent bonds

Card 3

Front

What is the main hydrocarbon in crude oil?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the general formula for alkanes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is distillation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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