Alkanes Revision

  • Created by: ElishaG
  • Created on: 14-02-17 18:32
What is displayed formula?
It shows all of the atoms and all of the bonds.
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What is structural formula?
The minimum detail required to show the arrangement of the atoms in a structure
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What is skeletal formula?
Simplified organic formula with just C skeleton and any functional groups.
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What is combustion?
Burning a substance in oxygen.
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What is complete combustion?
Burning a substance completely in oxygen. Complete combustion of a hydrocarbon produces water and carbon dioxide.
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What is incomplete combustion?
Burning a substance in a limited supply of oxygen. With a hydrocarbon produces carbon monoxide and water.
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What is melting point?
The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid at a fixed pressure, usually at standard pressure.
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What is a hydrocarbon?
Compounds containing hydrogen and carbon only.
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What is saturated?
Contains single bonds only.
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What is molecular formula?
The actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
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What is general formula?
The simplest algebraic formula of any molecule of a homologous series.
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What is empirical formula?
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.
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What is a homologous series?
A series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH2.
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What is a structural isomer?
Same molecular formula, different molecular structure.
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What is a radical?
A species with an unpaired electron.
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What is a substitution reaction?
A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced with another atom of group of atoms.
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What is homolytic fission?
The breaking of a covalent bond where the shared pair of electrons are split equally forming two radicals.
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Are alkanes saturated or unsaturated?
Saturated.
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What is the general formula for an alkane?
CnH(2n+2).
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Name the first 10 alkanes.
1)Methane.2)Ethane.3)Propane.4)Butane.5)Pentane.6)Hexane.7)Heptane.8)Octane.9)Nonane.10)Decane.
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What are alkanes in a ring shape called?
Cyclo(name of alkane), e.g. Cyclohexane.
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What is the BP and solubility of alkanes like?
Insoluble in water. Low boiling points.
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Why are alkanes insoluble in water?
1)Alkanes are non-polar.2)induced dipole dipole attractions are weaker than waters hydrogen bonds.
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Why do alkanes have low boiling points?
1)Alkanes are non-polar.2) Little heat energy is required to overcome weak induced dipole dipole attractions.
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What is the trend in boiling points for increasing chain length?
As chain length increases, boiling point increases because surface contact increases, more energy is needed to break stronger induced dipole dipole attractions.
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Explain the trend in boiling point for increased branching.
As branching increases,boiling point decreases because surface contact decreases so less energy is required to break weak induced dipole dipole attractions.
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Explain why alkanes are not very reactive.
1)They are non-polar molecules.2)Contain only strong C-C and C-H bonds that need a lot of energy to break.
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Why is the combustion of alkanes an effective energy source?
1)Exothermic.2)Hydrocarbons have a high energy content.
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What are the dangers of incomplete combustion?
Carbon monoxide is toxic and irreversibly binds with haemoglobin in the blood, so tissues can be starved of oxygen, causing death by lack of oxygen.
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What are the three stages of a reaction mechanism?
1)Initiation. 2)Propogation. 3)Termination.
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Why is radical substitution not a good method for preparation of a single halogenalkane?
1)Uncontrollable termination leads to a mixture of products.2)Further propogation steps on the mono-substituted product form poly-substituted halogenalkanes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is structural formula?

Back

The minimum detail required to show the arrangement of the atoms in a structure

Card 3

Front

What is skeletal formula?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is combustion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is complete combustion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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