Alkanes

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  • Created by: amm242
  • Created on: 02-05-18 15:05
What is the polarity of alkanes?
Non-polar because electronegativities of H and C are very similar
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What is the boiling point of branched alkanes?
Lower than straight chain alkanes because they can't pack together as closely
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What is the trend in boiling points of alkanes?
Increases with chain length because of increasing van der Waals
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Are alkanes soluble?
Insoluble in water because water's H bonds are stronger than van der Waals.
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When are alkanes unreactive?
With bases, acids, oxidising agents and reducing agents
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When are alkanes reactive?
With halogens under certiain conditions and they burn in oxygen
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What is crude oil?
A fossil fuel that's a mixture of branched and unbranched alkanes
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How do you seperate crude oil?
fractional distillation
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How are the hydrocarbon chains seperated?
Different boiling points so they condense at different temperatures when heated
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Why is cracking useful?
Produces more useful shorter chain alkanes and alkenes
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What are the conditions of thermal cracking?
Temp: 700-1200K, high pressure up to 7000kPa
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What does thermal cracking produce?
Short chain alkanes and high proportion of alkenes
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What are the conditions of catalytic cracking?
Temp: 720K, lower pressure, zeolite catalyst
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What does catalytic cracking produce?
Branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic compounds
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What does complete combustion form?
Carbon dioxide and water
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What does incomplete combustion form?
Carbon monoxide (or carbon) and water
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Dangers of nitrogen oxides
Acid rain and photochemical smog
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Formation of nitrogen oxides
High temperatures in petrol engines when sparks ignite the fuel
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Dangers of sulfur dioxide
Acid rain
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Formation of sulfur dioxide
Sulfur-containing impurities in crude oil
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Formation of carbon monoxide
Incomplete combustion
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Dangers of carbon monoxide
Mixes with haemoglobin, reducing oxygen levels
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Dangers of carbon
Exacerbate asthma and cause cancer
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Formation of carbon
Incomplete combustion
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Dangers of unburnt hydrocarbons
Greenhouse gases, photochemical smog
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Dangers of carbon dioxide
Greenhouse gas, climate change
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Formation of carbon dioxide
Burning hydrocarbons
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Dangers of water vapour
Greenhouse gas
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What is flue gas desulfurisation?
Removing sulfur dioxide from gases produced by burning fossil fuels
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What does calcium oxide and water desulfurisation produce?
Calcium sulfite, further oxidised to form calcium sulfate
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Other than CaO, what can be used to desulfur flue gases?
Calcium carbonate to produce calcium sulfate and carbon dioxide
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What do catalytic converters do?
Reduce output of CO, NOx and unburnt hydrocarbons in exhaust gas
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How do catalytic converters work?
Honeycomb ceramic coated with platinum/rhodium metal catalysts. Forms nitrogen, carbon dioxide or water
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How does carbon dioxide cause global warming?
Traps infrared radiation, heating up Earth's atmoshpere
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the boiling point of branched alkanes?

Back

Lower than straight chain alkanes because they can't pack together as closely

Card 3

Front

What is the trend in boiling points of alkanes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Are alkanes soluble?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When are alkanes unreactive?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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