Alkanes

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What is the formula for an alkane?
CnH2n+2
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What is the formula for a ring alkane?
CnH2n
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When do alkanes have isomers?
After butane
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Why are alkanes non polar?
There's little difference in polarity between carbon and hydrogen
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What intermolecular forces occur in alkanes?
Weak van de waals
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What makes van de waals forces increase?
Increased chain length
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What also increases due to increased chain length?
Boiling point
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What length chain is a gas?
1+
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What length chain is a liquid?
5+
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What length chain is a solid?
18+
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Why are alkanes insoluble?
Hydrogen bond in H2O is stronger than the van de waals foces in alkanes
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What do alkanes react with?
Oxygen and halogens in suitable conditions
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How is fractional distillation carried out?
Crude oil heated, gases condense when they reach tray at lower temp than their boiling point
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Where do short and long chains condense?
Short at the top, long/thick at the bottom
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What is thermal cracking?
Carbon - carbon bond is broken, 1 electron from the bond goes to each atom creating a free radical
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What conditions are needed for thermal cracking?
High temp (1200K) and high pressure (7000kPa)
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What is the main problem with thermal cracking?
Chains don't always break in the middle meaning H2 and alkenes can be formed
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How long are alkanes kept under these conditions for?
1 second
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What is required for catalytic cracking?
Low temperature, low pressure and a zeolite catalyst
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What is a zeolite catalyst?
Silicum dioxide and aluminum oxide honeycomb structure catalyst
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What does catalytic cracking produce?
Motor fuels
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What is combustion?
Alkanes burn completely in oxygen
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What is produced from combustion?
Carbon dioxide and water
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What is incomplete combustion?
When alkanes burn in a limited oxygen supply
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What is produce from incomplete combustion?
Carbon monoxide and soot if there's very little oxygen
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the formula for a ring alkane?

Back

CnH2n

Card 3

Front

When do alkanes have isomers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why are alkanes non polar?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What intermolecular forces occur in alkanes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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