Alexander II's Motives For Reform

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In the mid-nineteenth century, what percentage of the population were illiterate peasants?
85%
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Who were most serfs owned by?
Privately or by the state
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Where did most serfs belong to?
Village communes or mirs
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What style of farming was used?
***** farming
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When did Alexander II come to power?
March 1855
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What did the defeat in the Crimean War show about Russia?
It's reliance on serf armies, economic backwardness, lack of railways, outdated weaponary
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What was the shared view of Alexander II, his brother, his aunt and other enlightened bureaucrats?
Serf Emancipation
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Who did many nobles rely on for their money?
Serfs
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Who were in heavy debt?
Nobles
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What caused declining incomes for the nobles?
A growing serf population and inadequate agricultural systems
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What did nobles have to do as security for loans from the State Bank?
Mortgage their land and even serfs
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Serfdom prevented serfs from doing what?
Moving to work in town factories
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What did rural poverty leave serfs unable to do?
Pay their taxes, poll tax and the obruk
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What did traditional farming in the mir stop?
Experimentation of new agricultural methods
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By 1859, how much debt did the state face?
54 million roubles
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Who believed Russia should abandon serfdom?
Westerners
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Who favoured reforming serfdom but wanted to keep Russia's traditional peasant society?
Slavophiles
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Card 2

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Who were most serfs owned by?

Back

Privately or by the state

Card 3

Front

Where did most serfs belong to?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What style of farming was used?

Back

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Card 5

Front

When did Alexander II come to power?

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