Alexander II

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What were Alexander's motives for reform?
Well travelled/educated - knew the conditions for peasants elsewhere. First of his family to visit Siberia and see the conditions. Served on council state/secret committees. Experienced brief control of the country. Crimean War - seen Serf suffrage.
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What were the key terms of emancipation?
Serfs are free men. Landlords received compensation. Serfs kept their allotments and cottages. Redemption payments lasted for 40 years during which the Serfs were tied to their mirs.
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Why did Alexander stop reforming?
Scared of assassination. Felt he had done enough. Estranged from his 'reforming family'. They weakened the church and nobility which were his main support. Liberal ministers were replaced with Conservative ones.
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How did Alexander go back on his education reforms?
Curriculums changed to allow only traditional subjects. Subjects that encouraged critical thinking were forced out in unis. Church had power over rural schools.
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How did Alexander go back on his police/law courts reforms?
Political crimes were transferred to military courts where secret sentences could be given. (1878)
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How did Alexander go back on his ethnic minority reforms?
There was hostility to Poles, Jews and Finns after a rebellion in Poland in 1863. Russification was introduced.
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How did the Slavophiles oppose the Tsar?
They were against the abolition of Serfdom and other reforms e.g. zemstva and education. They put pressure on the Tsar but in a peaceful manner. They appointed Tolstoy, a Conservative minister.
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How did the Liberals oppose the Tsar?
They wanted even more reform - complete Serf freedom, a Russian constitution and freedom of speech. Annoyed that he went back on his reforms - e.g. the zemstva due to him feeling threatened. They didn't think he'd gone far enough with his reforms.
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How did the Populists oppose the Tsar?
Black Partition - focused on the peasants, wanted a peaceful revolution to achieve land distribution. People's Will - focused on the peasants but used violent means and performed many assassinations even eventually Alexander's.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Serfs are free men. Landlords received compensation. Serfs kept their allotments and cottages. Redemption payments lasted for 40 years during which the Serfs were tied to their mirs.

Back

What were the key terms of emancipation?

Card 3

Front

Scared of assassination. Felt he had done enough. Estranged from his 'reforming family'. They weakened the church and nobility which were his main support. Liberal ministers were replaced with Conservative ones.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Curriculums changed to allow only traditional subjects. Subjects that encouraged critical thinking were forced out in unis. Church had power over rural schools.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Political crimes were transferred to military courts where secret sentences could be given. (1878)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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