Tsarist Russia: 1855-1917

HideShow resource information
When was emancipation?
1861
1 of 75
What negatives came with emancipation?
49 annual redemption payments, poor quality of land, land still owned by the nobility, angered nobility, only 50% of serfs could produce a surplus.
2 of 75
When were Dmitrii Milyutin's military reforms?
1861-1881.
3 of 75
What did the military reforms include?
reduced conscription from 25 years to 15 years, improved of equipment, better training of soldiers, abandonment of military colonies, all classes conscripted, better education for soldiers.
4 of 75
What problems still occurred in the military?
many peasants were still illiterate, nobles could bribe peasants into taking their place in the army.
5 of 75
When were town councils first introduced and what were they called?
1864, zemstva.
6 of 75
When did they extend to towns and cities?
1870
7 of 75
What percentage of the nobility made up the zemstva?
74
8 of 75
When were the judicial reforms?
1864
9 of 75
What did the judicial reforms entail?
Introduction of the juries, stopped bribery of judges, new need for lawyers, court cases gave lawyers the opportunity to criticise autocracy.
10 of 75
When were the education reforms passed and what did they entail?
1856-1881 (almost the entirety of Alexander's reign), universities were created in major cities, new subjects such as politics and history were able to be studied.
11 of 75
When was the Ecclesiastical Commission set up? (dealt with annoying priests)
1861
12 of 75
When did the intelligentsia grow in influence?
1870's
13 of 75
Who were the intelligentsia?
Intellectuals from the newly formed middle class (e.g lawyers). They criticised autocracy.
14 of 75
When was the Communist Manifesto printed in Russian?
1869
15 of 75
Who were the Populists?
A group that believed that autocracy had to go. They wanted to convince the peasants that emancipation wasn't working. The peasants were loyal to the Tsar however.
16 of 75
How many Populists were executed by 1974?
1,600.
17 of 75
What was the name of the group of Populists who assassinated Alex. II?
The People's Will.
18 of 75
What did opposition do Alexander II?
Made him more reactionary.
19 of 75
What personal qualities did Alexander III have?
He was everything a great leader should be. He was 6ft4, and people said he could bend an iron poker and crush silver roubles.
20 of 75
How was Alex.III different to his father?
He was more conservative than his father.
21 of 75
Who was Alex. III private tutor?
Konstantin Pobedonostsev
22 of 75
When was Ivan Vyshnegradsky Finance Minister?
1887-1892
23 of 75
Why was Vyshnegradsky fired?
Famine of 1891
24 of 75
What economic policies did Vyshnedgradksy introduce as Finance Minister?
Indirect tax, encouragement of foreign investment, grain requisitioning, loan from France 1888.
25 of 75
Who was Finance Minister after Vyshnegradsky?
Sergei Witte
26 of 75
When was Witte Finance Minister?
1892-1903
27 of 75
What economic policies did Witte introduce?
New rouble 1897 backed up by gold to encourage foreign investment. Trade tariffs increased to 30%.
28 of 75
How much did the middle class (doctors, lawyers) grow by between 1850 and 1900?
144%.
29 of 75
How many St.Petersburg citizens had been born in the countryside by 1914?
75%
30 of 75
What denomination of Christianity was Russia?
Orthodox
31 of 75
Who was ''Over Procurator of the Holy Synod"?
Konstantin Pobedonostsev
32 of 75
When were factory inspectorate introduced?
1882 and 1885.
33 of 75
What did urban workers experience? (negative)
Poor living and working conditions, poor wages, disease, long working hours.
34 of 75
What is Russification?
Imposing Russian customs, traditions, language and religion on ethnic minorities.
35 of 75
How were the Jews repressed?
Exiled to the Pale of Settlement, routine pogroms from 1880s.
36 of 75
What was a peasant commune?
Mir
37 of 75
What did the mir do?
Controlled land distributions, farming methods, grain etc.
38 of 75
Who were higher than the mir (ran the mir) and were established in 1863?
Volosts.
39 of 75
What did the mir take control of that meant Russia could not progress?
Farming methods.
40 of 75
Define Slavophile:
A person who has beliefs rooted in Slav/Russian cultures and traditions.
41 of 75
Define Westerniser:
A person who wanted change for Russia to be more like the West.
42 of 75
Give an example of a Westerniser:
Alexander II
43 of 75
Give an example of a Slavophile:
Pobodonostsev
44 of 75
Which opposition groups grew in the 1880s and 1890s?
SR's, SD,s, liberal intelligentsia, the Okhrana.
45 of 75
When was the Peasant Land Bank introduced?
1883
46 of 75
When was the Nobles Land Bank introduced?
1885
47 of 75
Who was Tsar from 1894-1917?
Nicholas II
48 of 75
What did his son have?
Haemophilia
49 of 75
What qualities did Nicholas have?
Few, he was not respected or charismatic like his father or grandfather.
50 of 75
What fraction of the population did women make up?
1/5
51 of 75
Who legalised Trade Unions in 1900?
Pyotr Zubatov
52 of 75
When did the SR's form?
1901
53 of 75
What was the Red Cockerel?
A series of disturbances throughout 1903 and 1904.
54 of 75
What did the Red Cockerel entail?
Peasants turning against their landlords, strikes, formation of unions.
55 of 75
How many strikes were there in 1904?
90,000.
56 of 75
When were strikes banned?
1904
57 of 75
How many members did Georgii Gapon in his union in 1905?
9,000
58 of 75
Who led the 1905 procession at the Winter Palace?
Gapon.
59 of 75
What was the procession at the Winter Palace called?
Bloody Sunday
60 of 75
When was Bloody Sunday? (exact date)
22nd January 1905.
61 of 75
What percentage of the population were the urban workers in 1900?
3%
62 of 75
When was the Russo-Japanese War?
1904-1905
63 of 75
Why did the R/J War happen?
Russia wanted to expand into the same land that Japan wanted to expand into. They wanted a warm water port for trade (Port Arthur).
64 of 75
Why did Russia fail in the Russo Japanese War?
Russia had a lack of transport for troops.
65 of 75
What union did the liberals form?
A ''union of unions''
66 of 75
Which laws were introduced in 1906?
Fundamental Laws.
67 of 75
What did the Bolsheviks and social revolutionaries refuse to do in the First Duma?
Participate
68 of 75
What did Stolypin believe in?
Violent repression
69 of 75
How much did production increase by from 1892-1900?
50%
70 of 75
What did Stolypin introduce to combat problems in agriculture?
Land reforms/Wager on the Strong.
71 of 75
When was Stolypin killed?
1914
72 of 75
Who Stolypin killed by?
An Okhrana double agent.
73 of 75
Between 1908 and 1913 - how much did industry increase by?
8.5%
74 of 75
When was the Lena Goldfields Massacre?
1912
75 of 75

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What negatives came with emancipation?

Back

49 annual redemption payments, poor quality of land, land still owned by the nobility, angered nobility, only 50% of serfs could produce a surplus.

Card 3

Front

When were Dmitrii Milyutin's military reforms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the military reforms include?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What problems still occurred in the military?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »