Alcohols halogenoalkanes and analysis

  • Created by: frances
  • Created on: 25-04-13 11:57
Making ethanol
hydration of ethene, C2H4 and fermentation of sugars
1 of 6
Hydration of ehtene
Ethanol is manufactured industrially by the catalytic hydration of ethene C2H4 using STEAM in the presence of a PHOSPHORIC ACID CATALYST, H3PO4. The reaction is carried out at high temperature and moderate pressure and can be operated continously.
2 of 6
equation of hydration
H2C=CH2 -------------- CH3CH2OH
3 of 6
Hydration of ethene cont.
The reaction is reversible and so the conversion of ethene is incomplete. Each time the reagents pass through the reactor, only 5% is converted to ethanol. Any unreacted gases are recycled and reused.
4 of 6
Fermentation
Carbohydrates are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. sugar/ starch is used as the carbohydrate source. conc is up to 14% alcohol by volume. Low temperatures in the presence of yeast. slow at below 25C and denatured above 37C.
5 of 6
Fermentation cont.
The toxicity limits the concentration of the ethanol produced as the enzyme ceases to function above an alcohol comcentration of about 14%. Fermentation is anaerobic. IMPORTANT there is an absence of air asundesireable products are produced.
6 of 6

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Ethanol is manufactured industrially by the catalytic hydration of ethene C2H4 using STEAM in the presence of a PHOSPHORIC ACID CATALYST, H3PO4. The reaction is carried out at high temperature and moderate pressure and can be operated continously.

Back

Hydration of ehtene

Card 3

Front

H2C=CH2 -------------- CH3CH2OH

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The reaction is reversible and so the conversion of ethene is incomplete. Each time the reagents pass through the reactor, only 5% is converted to ethanol. Any unreacted gases are recycled and reused.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Carbohydrates are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. sugar/ starch is used as the carbohydrate source. conc is up to 14% alcohol by volume. Low temperatures in the presence of yeast. slow at below 25C and denatured above 37C.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Functional Groups resources »