Alcohols

HideShow resource information
What is the formula for alcohols?
CnH2n+1OH
1 of 37
What is the suffix and prefix for alcohols?
Suffix - ol, prefix - hydroxy
2 of 37
What is the angle between the carbon and OH bond?
109.5
3 of 37
What is a primary alcohol?
-OH is at the end of the chain
4 of 37
What is a secondary alcohol?
-OH is within the body of the chain
5 of 37
What is a tertiary alcohol?
-OH is at the branch of the chain
6 of 37
Why do alcohols have high boil + melt points?
Hydrogen bond occurs between O and H
7 of 37
Why are short chain alcohols soluble in water?
-OH can hydrogen bond to water
8 of 37
?What is the two ways of making ethanol?
Hydration or fermentation
9 of 37
What is required for hydration?
Steam, ethene and phosphoric acid catalyst
10 of 37
What is the process for hydration?
Ethene is cracked via addition
11 of 37
What are advantages of hydration?
Fast rate of reaction, continuous process, product is pure
12 of 37
What are disadvantages of hydration?
Ethene is crude oil which is non-renewable
13 of 37
What is required for fermentation?
Yeast enzymes, Compromised temp of 35 for effective enzymes and air-tight
14 of 37
Why is it important oxygen doesn't enter the reaction?
It will oxidise ethanol to ethanoic acid
15 of 37
What is the process of fermentation?
Carbohydrates are broken down to sugars, they're then converted to ethanol using enzymes from yeast, ethanol distilled of at 78 degrees using fractional distillation
16 of 37
What is the process of breaking down carbohydrates called?
Anaerobic respiration
17 of 37
What are the advantages of fermentation?
Sugars are a renewable resource
18 of 37
What are the disadvantages of fermentation?
Slow rate of reaction, batch process, aqeous solution of ethanol produced
19 of 37
How are alcohols used in combustion?
Used as fuels
20 of 37
What is needed for dehydration of alcohols?
Excess concentrated sulfuric acid, aluminium oxide catalyst
21 of 37
What is produced during dehydration?
Alkene, hydrogen ion, water
22 of 37
What are primary alcohols oxidised to?
Aldehydes
23 of 37
What are aldehydes further oxidised to?
Carboxylic acids
24 of 37
What are secondary alcohols oxidised to?
Ketones
25 of 37
Why don't tertiary alcohols oxidise well?
Oxidation requires a C-C bond not C-H
26 of 37
What is required to get ethanal from ethanol?
Dilute sulfuric acid, potassium dichromate (VI)
27 of 37
How is ethanal produced?
Two reactants are heated, ethanal vaporises as soon as it's formed
28 of 37
What is required to get ethanoic acid from ethanol?
Concentrated sulfuric acid and excess potassium dichromate (VI)
29 of 37
How is ethanoic acid produced?
Mixture is refluxed, ethanol will condense back into flask until it's oxidised to an acid, ethanoic acid is distilled off at 118 degrees
30 of 37
How are secondary alchols oxidised to ketones?
Acidified potassium dichromate
31 of 37
What group do aldehydes and ketones have?
Carbonyl group - carbon - oxygen double bond
32 of 37
Where does the carbonyl group lie in aldehydes and ketones?
End of chain in aldehydes, body of chain in ketones
33 of 37
What is Tollen's Reagent?
Solution of silver nitrate and aqeous ammonia
34 of 37
What is Tollen's Reagent used for?
Identifying aldehydes and ketones
35 of 37
How does Tollen's Reagent work?
Aldehyde will be oxidised and silver ion is reduced to metallic silver - leaving a silver film on top of test tube
36 of 37
What is Fehling's Test?
Blue copper (II) complex ions oxidise aldehydes not ketones - turns brick red in presence of aldehyde
37 of 37

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the suffix and prefix for alcohols?

Back

Suffix - ol, prefix - hydroxy

Card 3

Front

What is the angle between the carbon and OH bond?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a primary alcohol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a secondary alcohol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Functional Groups resources »