Alcohols

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What is general formula for Alcohols?
CnH2n+2 / CnH2n+1OH
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Why do alcohols have higher boiling points than their respective alkanes?
Alcohols have hydrogen bonds between molecules where as alkanes just have london forces. Hydrogen bonds require more energy to break
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Why are alcohols soluble in water?
Alcohols can form hydrogen bonds with water
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Alcohols can be classified as what 3 terms, and how many R groups does each term have?
Primary (1 R group), secondary (2 R groups) and Tertiary (3 R groups)
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What are the products of combustion of an alcohol?
Carbon dioxide and water
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What alcohols can be oxidised?
Primary and secondary
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What is an oxidising agent?
Acidified potassium dichromate
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What colour change occurs when acidified potassium dichromate is used as an oxidising agent?
Orange to Green
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What are the two practical techniques of oxidising an alcohol?
Reflux and Immediate distillation
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Which of the two practical techniques could oxidise straight to a carboxylic acid if a primary alcohol is used?
Reflux
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What is the first step in oxidation of primary alcohols?
Oxidation to an aldehyde
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What is the functional group of an aldehyde and where on the molecule is it located?
CHO (C double bond O single bond H) at the end
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What does the oxidation of a primary alcohol also produce?
Water
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How does the name of an aldehyde end? and give the name of ethanol which has been oxidised to an aldehyde
al, ethanal
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What is the name of the substance made when an aldehyde is further oxidised?
Carboxylic acid
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What is the functional group of a carboxylic acid and where is it found?
COOH (C double bond O and single bond OH)
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How do you name a carboxylic acid and name one made from pentan-1-ol.
Add oic acid at the end, e.g pentanoic acid
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What does the oxidation of a secondary alcohol produce?
Ketone
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What does the functional group look like on a ketone
C double bonded to O
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How do you name ketones and give and example when pentan-2-ol is oxidised
Add one on the end end, pentan-2-one
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Why doesn't tertiary alcohols change colour when potassium dichromate is added?
because they can't be oxidised by mild oxidising agents so there will be no reaction so no colour change
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What are some practical techniques for the purification of an organic liquid?
Use of separating funnel, drying and redistillation
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Explain use of separating funnel.
Separates liquids of different densities like aqueous liquids and organic solutions so can filter off each layer and leave organic
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Explain drying.
Add anhydrous salt e.g Na2SO4 and swirl, the water will be trapped in the drying agent so organic liquid is left behind
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Explain Redistillation.
It is the purification of an organic liquid by heating and condensing to remove water
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What reacts and is formed in an esterification reaction?
Alcohol + Carboxylic acid = ester
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What are the conditions and reagents for esterification?
Reflux alcohol carboxylic acid and concentrated sulfuric acid (catalyst) to form ester
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How do you name esters?
Name the part branching off next to the double bond O first, then add the 'stem' part second, with an oate at the end
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Name the ester produced when butanoic acid and propanol are refluxed with concentrated sulfuric acid.
Propylbutanoate
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What happens in the dehydration of alcohols?
H and OH are removed from adjacent carbons
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What are the reagents and conditions for the dehydration of alcohols?
Concentrated sulfuric acid and heat
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What is the product of dehydration of alcohols?
Alkene
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What can be shown in some dehydrations of alcohols?
Stereoisomerism
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How can haloalkanes be formed?
Reacting alcohols with hydrogen halides
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What is the equation for the formation of a hydrogen halide?
NaX + H2SO4 ---> HX + NaHSO4 (X being halide)
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What is the equation for the formation of the haloalkane (use ethanol as example)?
CH3CH2OH + HX ----> CH3CH2X + H2O
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What is the overall equation for forming a haloalkane?
CH3CH2OH + NaX + H2SO4 ---> CH3CH2X + NaHSO4 + H2O
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why do alcohols have higher boiling points than their respective alkanes?

Back

Alcohols have hydrogen bonds between molecules where as alkanes just have london forces. Hydrogen bonds require more energy to break

Card 3

Front

Why are alcohols soluble in water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Alcohols can be classified as what 3 terms, and how many R groups does each term have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the products of combustion of an alcohol?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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