Agriculture in Industry

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  • Created by: LucySPG
  • Created on: 30-01-14 09:54
What three elements are needed in large amounts for plant growth?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
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What three elements are needed in small amounts for plant growth?
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
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What is the ending of the electron configuration of group 5 elements
p3
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How many covalent bonds can group 5 elements form?
Three
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How many unpaired electrons can group 5 elements share?
Three unpaired electrons
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What is the oxidation state of group 5 elements?
+3 or -3
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When group 5 elements form dative covalent bonds, what is their oxidation state?
+5
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What is the bond enthalpy like of N2?
Large and most reactions have a high activation enthalpies and require high temperatures and catalysts to make them occur
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What must happen before nitrogen reacts?
The triple bond between atoms must be broken, or partially broken
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Once nitrogen has reacted, what compounds can it form?
Ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrates
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How is ammonia formed?
By the reaction between N2 and H2. The N atom forms covalent bonds by sharing one of its electrons with each of the 3 H atoms.
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Does ammonia have a lone pair of electrons?
Yes
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How is an ammonium ion formed?
Ammonia acts as a base and forms dative covalent bonds to H+ ions
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Why is ammonia a good ligand?
It forms dative covalent bonds to transition metal ions
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What is the shape of ammonia?
Triangular pyramid
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What is the size of the bond angles in ammonia?
107
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What is the formula for Nitrogen II oxide?
NO
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What is the formula for Nitrogen IV oxide?
NO2
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What is the formula for Dimitrogen I oxide?
N2O
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What is the formula for nitrate V?
NO3-
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What is the formula for nitrate III?
NO2-
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What is the appearance of nitrogen II oxide?
Colourless gas, turns to brown NO2 in air
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What is the appearance of nitrogen IV oxide?
Brown gas (toxic)
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What is the appearance of dinitrogen I oxide?
Colourless gas
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How is nitrogen II oxide formed?
Combustion processes, thunderstorms, denitrifying bacteria in soul
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How is nitrogen IV oxide formed?
From oxidation of NO in atmosphere
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How is dinitrogen I oxide formed?
In the soil by denitrifying bacteria
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What are the properties of nitrate V?
Oxidising agent, metal nitrate V compounds are very soluble in water
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What are the properties of nitrate III?
Can be reducing or oxidising agent, metal nitrate III compounds are soluble in water
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What is the formula for ammonium nitrate V?
NH4NO3
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What is the formula for ammonium sulfate?
(NH4)2SO4
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What is the formula for ammonium phosphate?
(NH4)3PO4
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What is the formula for urea?
CO(NH2)2
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What is the formula for potassium chloride?
KCl
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Why is something a good fertiliser?
Because it contains nitrogen/nitrates which crops need
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When is a system said to be in equilibrium?
When the rate of the forward reaction is the same as the backwards reaction?
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When does the position of equilibrium lie to the left?
If little of the reactants have changed to products when the reverse reaction becomes equal to the rate of the forward reaction, the position of equilibrium lies to the left
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When does the position of equilibrium lie to the right?
If most of the reactants become products before the reverse reaction increases sufficiently to establish equilibrium, the position of equilibrium lies to the right
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A reaction won't take place between two particles unless they have enough....
Kinetic energy
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What is the minimum amount of kinetic energy particles need to react?
Activation enthalpy
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What is activation enthalpy
The minimum amount of kinetic energy needed for particles to react
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Do reactions with low activation enthalpies happen easier than reactions with high activation enthalpies?
Yes
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What is Le Chateliers Principal?
If a system is at equilibrium and a change is made in any of the conditions, then the system responds to counteract the changes as much as possible
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What happens to the position of equilibrium when you increase the temperature?
Shifts in the direction of the endothermic reaction
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What happens to the position of equilibrium when you decrease the temperature?
Shifts in the direction of the exothermic reaction
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What happens to the position of equilibrium when you increase the concentration of the reactant?
Shifts to the right (decreases reactants)
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What happens to the position of equilibrium when you decrease the concentration of the reactant?
Shifts to the left (increases reactants)
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What happens to the position of equilibrium when you increase the concentrations of the products?
Shifts to the left (decreases products)
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What happens to the position of equilibrium when you decrease the concentrations of the products?
Shifts to the right (increases products)
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What happens to the position of equilibrium when you increase the pressure?
Shifts to the side with fewer gas molecules
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What happens to the position of equilibrium when you decrease the pressure?
Shifts to the side with more gas molecules
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What effect does a catalyst have on the position of equilibrium?
It has no effect
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How does temperature affect the rate of a reaction?
Make reactions go faster so more products are made
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How does pressure affect the rate of a reaction?
Makes gaseous reactions go faster
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How does a catalyst affect the rate of a reaction?
Make reactions go faster without being used up
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What is the equation for the equilibrium constant?
Kc = products / reactants
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What changes the numerical value of Kc?
Temperature
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When will the value of Kc be less than one?
When the value of the products is smaller than the value of the reactants
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When will the value of Kc be more than one?
When the value of the products is bigger than the value of the reactants
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What is the equation for calculating percentage yield?
% yield = mass of product / theoretical mass of product x 100
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What is the equation for calculating atom economy?
% atom economy = mass of useful product / mass of reactants used x 100
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What reaction type has the highest atom economy?
Addition and rearrangement
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What reaction type has the lowest atom economy?
Elimination
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How many electrons can the s sub-shell hold?
2
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How many electrons can the p sub-shell hold?
6
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How many electrons can the d sub-shell hold?
10
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How many electrons can the d sub-shell hold?
10
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How many electrons can the F sub-shell hold?
14
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Which type of soil bacteria carries out oxidation?
Nitrifying bacteria carry out oxidation because the highest oxidation state nitrate V is produced
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What is the oxidation state of nitrogen gas?
0
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What is the oxidation state of nitrate V?
+5
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What is the oxidation state of nitrate III?
+3
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What is the oxidation state of ammonium?
-3
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What is the oxidation state of dinitrogen oxide?
+1
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What is the oxidation state of nitrogen II oxide?
+2
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What is the oxidation state of nitrogen IV oxide?
+4
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What three elements are needed in small amounts for plant growth?

Back

Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

Card 3

Front

What is the ending of the electron configuration of group 5 elements

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many covalent bonds can group 5 elements form?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many unpaired electrons can group 5 elements share?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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