Aggression studies

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  • Created by: 8cburton
  • Created on: 29-04-15 17:12
SLT- Bandura- bobo doll study
3 conditions: adult agg, adult non agg, no model. Children in agg group imitated the agg both phsyically and verbally. Boys imitated physical violence more
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SLT- Bandura and Walters- vicarious reinforcement
Group 1 saw agg rewarded Group 2 saw agg punished and Group 3 saw no consequences. Group 1 most agg, then group 3, then group 2.
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SLT- Bandura- further study
Model punished but children rewarded- children show agg. This suggests that even if a child doesn't perfrom an imitated behaviour they have learnt it.
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DEINDIVIDUATION- Zimbardo- kukluxklan
Experimental group deindividuated (hood, no names, oversized lab coat), control group- name tags, introductions and normal clothes. Task= 'creativity under stress'. Anonymous participant shocked 2X longer
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DEINDIVIDUATION- Postmes and spears
Meta analyses of 60+. Didn't find consistent results that crowds reduce inhibitions, in fact behaviours change was more to do with group norms.
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DEINDIVIDUATION- Prentice Dunn and Rogers
Experimental group= Focus attention outward+ dimly lit room + loud rock music + verbal interaction + exciting video games. Control group= focus attention internally+ no interaction+ non arousing games+ well lit room. Experimental group higher agg
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IMPORTATION MODEL- Poole and Regoli
4 different juvenile institutions- found that the offenders pre-institutional violence was the best predictor of inmate agg
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IMPORTATION MODEL- Keller and Wang
Max security prisons had higher levels of assault than low security. Supports that violence is dispositional and brought into prisons
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LUCIFER EFFECT- Zimbardo- Stanford prison study
22 male volunteers. Guards became verbally agg, controlling and gave arbitrary demands. Prisoners became submissive. In interviews guards were surprised at their behaviour but acted with the demands of the situation
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LUCIFER EFFECT- Bandura et al
Told students they were working with other students from other school. Group 1 over heard other students being called 'animals'. Group 2 overheard students were 'nice'. Group 1 gave high electric shocks
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GENES (general link)- McGuffin and Gottesman
Concordance rate of agg in MZ twins 87% while in DZ twins 72%
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GENES (general link)- Hutchings and Mednick
Positive correlation between number of convicts for violent crimes in biological father and number of convicts for adopted son.
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GENES (warrior gene)- Brunner
Dutch family with history of extreme violence, tested 4 generations' urine for excess neurotransmitters. Produced positive results supporting the existence of the warrior gene
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GENES (warrior gene)- Vishnivetskaya
Mice that lacked MAO-A were called Tg8 mice. These mice showed increased aggression (territorial, predatory). However not aggressive to sleeping mice/ juvenile males that posed no threat
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NEURAL MECHANISMS (Low levels of serotonin)- Crockett et al
Participants fasted, given protein drink every morning. Group 1 had drink containing tryptophan (body needs to make serotonin), group 2 didn't have this. Played ultimatum game.Those with low levels of serotonin showed increased aggression
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NEURAL MECHANISMS (low levels of serotonin)- Davidson et al
Lower levels of serotonin found in violent crimes compared to non violent crimes.
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NEURAL MECHANISMS (role of testosterone)- Kreuz and Rose
Testosterone levels did not correlate with prison violence but did relate to their crimes. The more violent their crimes were the higher their testosterone levels
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NEURAL MECHANISMS (mismatch theory)- Josephs et al
Found men and woman with high testosterone reacted negatively after loss of status (stressed and anxious leading to aggression). Same the other way round
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EVOLUTIONARY (sexual jealousy)- Buss- 37 cultures
Males consistently valued chastity and faithfulness while women valued faithfulness more. Females more emotionally stressed which supports the theory. Males were more sexually jealous which add further support for the theory
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EVOLUTIONARY (sexual jealousy)- Day and Wilson- 80 murderers
44 victims husbands, 36 wives. 29% because of sexual jealousy with most conflicts started by the male and women killed in self defence. 15 husbands and 5 wives convicted for murder. Supports the theory of males being more sexually jealous
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EVOLUTIONARY (sexual jealousy)- Milller-44 female victims of domestic violence
55% said sexual jealousy was the cause, 25% stated their own infidelity was the reason. Some reported unable to go out alone or with friends. Supports theory of males being sexually jealousy
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EVOLUTIONARY (group display in war)- Chagon- tribes
Constant fighting between tribes in the Amazon concerning access to women or raising the status of a group. Successful warriors had more wives and children supporting the theory to a degree
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EVOLUTIONARY (group display in war)- Systematic ****
In the Bosnian war over 20 000 Muslim women and girls were ***** by Serbians. 1 aim was to make them flee and another was that the children would have Serbian blood. Support the idea of spreading ones gene pool
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EVOLUTIONARY (group display in war)- across culture/species
War occurs in many modern societies and pre- industrial societies showing it must be innate as they occur cross culturally. It also occurs in intelligent species like chimpanzees and dolphins- universal, adaptive behaviour
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EVOLUTIONARY (group display in sport)- Marsh- football fans
Observed football fans which seemed very violent. But the whole display was verbal and did not become physical. Supports the idea it is an adaptive response to survive
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EVOLUTIONARY (group display in sport)- Cialdini et al- university football match
The team that won had the supporters identify with them (wear the clothes that identify them and using the pronoun 'their' team won). While the supports of the team that lost used the pronoun 'they' lost as they didn't want to associate with themv
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Card 2

Front

Group 1 saw agg rewarded Group 2 saw agg punished and Group 3 saw no consequences. Group 1 most agg, then group 3, then group 2.

Back

SLT- Bandura and Walters- vicarious reinforcement

Card 3

Front

Model punished but children rewarded- children show agg. This suggests that even if a child doesn't perfrom an imitated behaviour they have learnt it.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Experimental group deindividuated (hood, no names, oversized lab coat), control group- name tags, introductions and normal clothes. Task= 'creativity under stress'. Anonymous participant shocked 2X longer

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Meta analyses of 60+. Didn't find consistent results that crowds reduce inhibitions, in fact behaviours change was more to do with group norms.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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