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What are the social psychological approaches to aggression?
Social learning theory, deindividuation and institutional aggression
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What are the two forms of institutional aggression?
Prisons and groups
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What does SLT say about aggression?
That we immitate aggressive behaviour off people through vicarious learning
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What must someone do to successfully imitate aggressive behaviour?
1. Pay attention, 2. retain the informaiton, 3. reporduce the behaviour and 4. be motivated to display the behaviour witnessed
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What is meant by the term "deindividuation"?
Where people loose their sense of identity within certain situations eg: crowds
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How does deinidviduation occur?
Through self-evaluation (low conditions of this produce the person to not think about themselves or what others think of them either
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What study supports SLT and aggression?
Bandura (BOBO doll study) children imitated the aggressive behaviour they witnessed towards the doll
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State a weakness of the SLT in relation to aggression.
The SLT falls under the nurture debate which argues we learn to be come aggressive however it has also been proven that their are genetic influences between aggressive behaviour therefore the approach is deterministic.
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State a strength of the SLT in explaining aggression.
It has real world application through BANDURAS research into media influence in aggression, means that we can apply his findings to the population
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When does "anonymity" occur?
When someone becomes deindividuated- they become anonymous
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What study supports deindividuation?
ZIMBARDO (prison experiement and electric shock experiement)
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What is one strength of deinidividuation theory?
The idea of anonymity can be supported by zimbardos electric shock experiment
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What is one weakness of the deindividuation theory?
Not everyone that becomes deinidividuated shows aggressive behaviour: They mainly just want to conform with the norms depending on the situation
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How can prisons create aggression?
Through the deprivation model- prison is a stressful environment that causes people to show aggressive behaviour. eg: crowded, privacy.
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How can prisoners create aggression?
Through the importation model- prisoners bring their aggressive behaviour with them which can create gang memberships in the prisons
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What is "institutional" aggression?
Aggression in institutions that is creates through social forces not anger
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State one strength of the institutional aggression theory.
Importation model can be supported- American black inmates were found to have higher rates of violence against white inmates this shows how prisoner violence is brought into prisons
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What do neural nad hormonal mechanisms argue about aggression?
That our aggression is down seritonin/dopamine (neurotransmitter) and testosterone/cortisol (hormones)
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How does seritonin encourage aggressive behaviour?
It causes us to respond to emotional stimuli which can cause us to react in an aggressive way. When we have low levels of seritonin we are more likely to inhibit aggressive behaviour.
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Who supports seritonin and how?
Mann- 35pps a drug to reduce seritonin, through a questionnaire found that the men scored more highly on aggression and hostility.
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How does dopamine link to aggressive behaviour?
When we have high amounts of the neurotransmitter we will show more aggressive behaviour.
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How does cortisol encourage us to show aggressive behaviour?
Through the idea of inverse correlation (when we have low levels of cortisol we have higher levels of aggressive behaviour)
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What does testosterone have to do with aggressive behaviour?
Testosterone only occur in males which are the typically more aggressive sex, early onset of crime is at the age where testosterone is at it's highest, castraition lowers the aggression shows that it can stimulate aggressive behaviour
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What is a strength of neural/hormonal mechanisms in aggression?
Ferrari- rat fighting study (found that dopamine/seritonin levels increased as the rat got more aggressive)
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What is a weakness of neural/hormonal mechanisms in aggression?
IDA= GENDER BIAS only focuses on males and their aggressive behaviours
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What are the genetic factors in aggression?
Twin studies, adoption studies and genes
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What do twin studies suggest about aggression?
that idnetical (MZ) twins are more likely to show similar levels of aggressive behaviour than non-dentical (DZ) twins
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What do adoption studies say about aggression?
Through comparing biological parents with their adopted children they can be a similarity in aggressive behaviour
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What gene is associated with aggression?
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What is a weakness of genetic factors in aggression?
Ethics- the use of animal studies and them not being generalisable to humans as we are different speicies. Also takes into the account of genetic engineering which is an experimental maniuplation
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What is a strength of genetic factors in aggression?
Real world application= we may be able to use the research in rehabilitation of offenders if we know what causes them to be violent
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What are the evolutionary explanations of aggression?
Infedelity/jealousy and sport/warfare
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What does the evolutionary approach argue?
That we act in aggressive ways to improve our chance of survival
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What does "jealousy" mean?
It's the idea that someone becomes upset as they feel as though there is a loss of emotion towards them from the person they love
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What does "infidelity" mean?
Cheating on your partner
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How do infidelity and jealousy link with aggressive behaviour?
They argue that males become aggressive when they believe that their partner is cheating on them as it is an adaptive response to keep their mate close to them (mate-retention)
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Why does the evolutionary apporach apply to men?
Men can never be certain that a child is theirs, whereas a woman can.
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What is meant by "cuckoldry"?
When a women convinces a man that the child is theirs, when it isn't
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What does cuckoldry say about pregnant females and the risks?
It says that women who are pregnant are more likely to suffer from partner abuse as they are more vunerable. It also states that men are more likely to use sexual cocersion to keep the female close if they suspect they are cheating (eg: partner ****)
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Who supports both violence and the cuckoldry risk hypothesis?
Buss and shakleford: found males use more intresexual tactics and females use more verbal opossession all to keep their mate
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What is a strength of evolutionary explanations?
Support for mate-retention= shakelford (surveyed men against their use of mate-retention strategies and their violence scores. This created a +correlation
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What is a weakness of the evolutionary approach?
IDA: gender bias (most of the research focuses on males ability to adapt to have violent responses and rarely includes the females chances of being violent also
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What does sport say about evolved aggression?
It is a modernisation of war, it has all of the advantages of being aggressive without death
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What does warfare say about our aggressive behaviour?
That it is adaptive because women find successful men attractive
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What is another weakness of the evolutionary approach?
Mot evidence is based on correlational studies that don't show causality
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What is another strength of the evolutionary approach?
Can be used as a practical application to avoid domestic violence against women
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Card 2


What are the two forms of institutional aggression?


Prisons and groups

Card 3


What does SLT say about aggression?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What must someone do to successfully imitate aggressive behaviour?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is meant by the term "deindividuation"?


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