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what is deindividuation
gaining anonymity and a loss of identity and responsibility
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what can help this
being part of a large group or becoming more unidentifiable
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what four things are necessary
strong feeling of group membership, focus on external factors, high arousal, anonymity
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what did Zimbardo do
randomly allocated participants to the guard role or prisoner role. Simulated a prison environment, gave the prisoners numbers and the guards uniforms and reflective sunglasses
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what happened
after a few days the guards started becoming physically and verbally abusive
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what did Rehm study
girls and boys handball teams. gave one team a uniform, that team always played more aggressively than the team not in uniform (not in the case of the girls tho)
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what is the idea of SLT and aggression
we learn to be aggressive. people see role models being aggressive and being praised for it, want to imitate behaviour to get the rewards
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how can this explain differences in girls and boys aggression
men being aggressive are praised, so boys want to imitate. women being aggressive are told off, so women shy away from aggression
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what did Aaronson study
the Pygmies of central Africa. An extremely non violent community because they have no examples of aggression to copy
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what did Philips report
increased incidences of homicide in the week following a boxing match
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what did Bandura do
got 72 kids to watch an adult playing nicely or aggressively towards a bobo doll. The kids in the second condition then acted much more aggressively towards the doll
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what is the theory of institutional aggression
importation; the prisoner has the aggressive characteristics and brings the aggression in with them and deprivation; the prison environment causes the aggression. Loss of freedom, home comforts etc
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what did Sykes find
loss of autonomy and relationships leads to loneliness and boredom, this in turn leads to stress, which leads to acts of violence to relieve the stress
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what did Poole and Regoli find
an inmates history of violence is the best way to predict how violent they will be in prison
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what did Harer and Steffensmaier find
that rates of violence in prison were reflective of racial differences in violence in society (black people more violent)
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what is the idea of serotonin causing aggression
thought that the pre-frontal cortex needs serotonin to control impulsive and aggressive behaviour, so low serotonin may be the cause
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what did Mann et al find
people with more serotonin on their PFC (so serotonin used up quicker) contemplated more violent suicides
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what is the idea of dopamine causing aggression
dopamine is released during acts of aggression, which may feel like a rush of pleasure (a reward)
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what did Couppis find
people would sometimes seek out chances to aggressive because it gave them a rush of pleasure (dopamine)
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what did Buitelaar find
drugs lowering serotonin reduced acts of aggression in violent delinquents
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how may cortisol influence aggression
cortisol maintains blood sugar levels and is produced when stressed. Aggression increases stress so cortisol is released. Aggression may be the body's response to low blood sugar levels
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what did McBurnett find
boys with low cortisol showed 3 times the number of symptoms of aggression
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what did Olweus find
boys with abnormally high testosterone responded much more aggressively to challenges from peers and teachers
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what did Brunner study
a Dutch family with a history of extreme violence
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what did he discover
a faulty MAOA gene on the x chromosome that failed to clear excess serotonin. This excess made them feel agitated and restless.
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what is the idea of evolution causing aggression
it is adaptive for people to cheat, but not be cheated on. Men want as many offspring as possible but they can't be sure if the offspring are theirs (paternity uncertainty). Run the risk of being cuckolded
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where does aggression come into this
it improves their chances of passing on genes if they scare of competition for their mate, so act aggressive to other males. they will also use mate retention strategies to inhibit the sexual freedom of their partner and reduce risk of infidelity
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what did Shackleford find
men who had sexually coerced their partner did so because they believed the were being unfaithfu;
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how is aggression in sport explained
aggression intimidates opponents and increases chances of winning. Winning increases attractiveness to women bc it shows strength, showing that men can protect resources and future offspring
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how is xenophobia in sport explained
aggression among fans usually comes from xenophobia. want to protect land and resources from people not like them
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what did Swarz find
teams won most at home because their fans intimidated the other team, e.g. ynwa wtc
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what did Foldesi find
studied Hungarian football fans, finding xenophobia to be the main cause of aggression. usually directed at russians, jews and gypsies
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how is aggression in warfare explained
traditionally men would compete for mates. success in battle is a show of strength, increasing attractiveness and status. It also decreases competitors.
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what did Palmer and Tiller find
street gang members had more sexual partners than other men
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what did Leunissen and Van Vugt find
military men had greater sex appeal than other men
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what can help this


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what four things are necessary


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what did Zimbardo do


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