Aggression Studies

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Sosis (2005)
Studies dispersed societies on costs of rituals and type of warfare. Frequency and type can predict the male rituals displayed. External conflict = scars. Internal conflict (less committed) = temporary paint
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Irons (2001)
Costly signalling has 2 adaptive advantages 1) showing group commitment and 2) acting as a deterrant
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Mullen (1986)
60 newspaper reports for number in crowd and level of violence. Increase in mob size leads to breakdown in self regulation.
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Tolnay and Beck (1995)
interviewed members of lynch mobs and found justifications included 'trying to vote' and 'protecting their family'
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Hogg and Vaughn (2008)
group displays are not a social or biological phenomenon.
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Ridley (1997)
adds to validity by indicating that group displays are more likely to occur when the group are at risk.
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Clark (2006)
study of Sao Paulo lynchings, afro brazilian victims not socio-economic threat.
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Ruffle and Sosis (2005)
studied Israelii Kibbulizm. Correlation between synagogue attendance and male cooperation.
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Daly and Wilson (1988)
found death of women was due to physical violence. control was intended through the violence, not death.
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Pipat case study
Admitted battering wife to death after she visited her ex-lover.
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Archer (2000)
found equal rates of assault in men and women
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Wilson et al (1975)
studied women whose husbands were described as 'jealous'. 75% needed medical attention after assault due to jealousy.
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Shackleford (2005)
men who used mate retention are more violent. Positive correlation.
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Miles and Carey
Meta analysis found evidence of strong genetic link to aggression. In the young people studied, environmental factors were equally important.
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Rhee and Wildman
meta analysis of 51 studies - aggressive and antisocial behavior was a product of genetic factors.
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Lagini et al .
2 variations of MAOA gene each associated with high/low levels of aggression. High MAOA- LOW AGGRESSION.
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Caspi et al. (2002)
1037 kids. Longitudinal study. High MAOA-less antisocial. Low MAOA- more antisocial behaviour.
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Branner
studied a violent Dutch family. Many men who had low MAOA and the defective gene. Assumed more aggressive due to their genetic makeup.
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Klinesmith et al. (2006)
Male college students provided saliva samples. Measured testosterone levels. One group held gun another held child's toy. Gun increased testosterone, link.
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Coupus and Kennedy (2008)
Studied the reward pathways of mice. Results show reward pathways activated in when engaged in aggressive behavior. Seek aggression to experience rewarding behavior.
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Buitelaar (2003)
Found dopamine reducing anti-psychotics reduce aggression.
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Raleigh et al. (1991)
Did a monkey study. Found differences in aggression depending on serotonin production. Which depends on food intake.
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Postmes and Spears (1998)
Said that in 60 deindividuation studies, there was insufficient support for self-awareness being a factor.
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Mullen (1968)
analysed newspaper cuttings of 60 lynchings in the US between 1899 and 1946. Found the greater amount of people, the greater the level of violence and savagery.
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Dunn et al (1982)
Claims anonymity reduces self awareness. Less aware of actions and consequences.
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Wotson (1973)
23 societies who changed appearances prior to war. More aggressive and destructive in uniform themes. Suggests individual will take on identity of the uniform.
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Mann (1981)
analysis of 21 suicide leaps in the US from the 1960's to the 1970's. 10/21 cases crowd gathered and urged the person to jump. Took place at night- anonymity was a factor.
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Cannavale et al (1970)
Found that male and female groups respond differently under individuation. Males only showed increased aggression.
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Zimbardo
24 males, split into 2 groups, one prisoner and one guard. Given uniforms. People took on identity of uniforms and as a result, guards acted aggressively.
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Keller and Wang (2005)
prisons that have the most violence, hold the most troublesome prisoners. Supports importation theory.
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McCorkle et al.
Sample of 371 US prisons found little evidence that Wilson's three factors and violence. Violence is a consequence of prison management. Stress is constant.
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Harer and Steffensmeier (1996)
Black inmates more violent than white inmates, result of the poor communities they live in.
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Sykes (1958)
imprisonment causes fustration.
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Irwin and Cressey (1962)
Claims that interpersonal violence is not a product of the institution itself but of the individuals within. Black inmates more violent that white inmates.
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Delisi et al (2004)
no evidence gang membership is related to violence
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Wilson
Hot, noisy and overcrowdedness cause violence. Reducing these three factors decreases violence.
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Jiang and Fisher-Giorlando (2002)
deprivation explains violence against staff. Importation explains against other inmates.
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Poole and Regoli
juvenile offenders study. Preinstitution aggression more important than conditions.
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Costly signalling has 2 adaptive advantages 1) showing group commitment and 2) acting as a deterrant

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Irons (2001)

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60 newspaper reports for number in crowd and level of violence. Increase in mob size leads to breakdown in self regulation.

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Card 4

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interviewed members of lynch mobs and found justifications included 'trying to vote' and 'protecting their family'

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Card 5

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group displays are not a social or biological phenomenon.

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