Ideologies and the Social Question

There were 3 classes in society during the 18th Century, what were they?
Nobility, Bourgeoisie and Working Class
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What was the economic function of the nobility?
Rent from inherited assets or assets that justified a new nobility status
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What was the economic function of the bourgeoisie?
Trade, industry and skilled artisans
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What was the economic function of the working class?
Unskilled/poorly skilled artisans and servants
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The moral ground was held by which class?
Bourgeoisie
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How did the Nobility survive in Europe?
Adaptation
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In what year did Antione Destutt come up with the idea of ideology?
1796
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What was the point of ideologies?
To explain the world and change it
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This was the period of the 'isms', list them.
Liberalism, Conservatism, Socialism and Nationalism
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What century/centuries were the age of liberty?
Late 18th-Early 19th
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Give an example of a war that showed this was the age of liberty
War of liberation against Napoleon in the Hispanic World
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The constitution of 1812 wanted to introduce 3 things, name one
Abolish the privileges and restrict authority of the King
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The constitution of 1812 wanted to introduce 3 things, name one
Assert state control over the church
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The constitution of 1812 wanted to introduce 3 things, name one
Introduce modern ideas of national sovereignity
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There were six fundamental convictions during the 18th Century Enlightenment period to aim at securing greater freedom for individuals, name one
All mankind had equal potential to reason
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There were six fundamental convictions during the 18th Century Enlightenment period to aim at securing greater freedom for individuals, name one
Stressed the beneficial effects of exercising free reason on society
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There were six fundamental convictions during the 18th Century Enlightenment period to aim at securing greater freedom for individuals, name one
Political stability was dependent upon the power of the people
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There were six fundamental convictions during the 18th Century Enlightenment period to aim at securing greater freedom for individuals, name one
Government by nation state was best suited to guarantee prosperity and freedom
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There were six fundamental convictions during the 18th Century Enlightenment period to aim at securing greater freedom for individuals, name one
Stress on economic freedom
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There were six fundamental convictions during the 18th Century Enlightenment period to aim at securing greater freedom for individuals, name one
Equality under the law for the basis of social order
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What does economic freedom mean?
Freedom to prosper in a country without interference from the government
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What was the main utilitarian reason for liberalism?
Provide the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers
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How did the utilitarians believed the greatest happiness could be achieved?
Through individuals freedom to pursue their own life plans
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What did utopian liberalism aim for in general?
A state in which everything was perfect
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They had a strong faith that human freedom would......
resolve the problems of human existence
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They believed that if a state supports the development of an individual this will enable.......
Self actualisation
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Who put structure to the idea that political legitimacy was dependent upon the sovereignty of the people when the utopians left the idea up in the air?
John Mill
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How did John Mill propose enablement of personal development?
State should provide education to individuals to enable personal development
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Until this was possible, who did the liberals say should govern?
Enlightened elite
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What is the moral democracy idea?
Where there is authority and government but they are restricted by the people who are in turn guided by God
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What did Mazinni believe about government control over nation states?
Believed freedom could only be obtained under nation states which would enable progress
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Did progressive liberals believe in decentralisation?
Yes
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What is decentralisation?
Where not all decisions are made by one government e.g. involvement of local councils
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What was conservatism opposed to?
Moving away from tradition
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What did they believe the government should be based on?
Tradition
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Counterrevolutionary conservatism was ultra.....
royalist
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What did counterrevolutionary conservatism want to do to society?
Restore it to a pre-revolutionary condition before reform
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What did Joseph de Maistre believe about the monarchy?
It was a god-given form of government
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What did he believed about abolishing the monarchy?
That it would be a violation of divine law
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Popular conservatism extended to private life, in what ways?
Family stability and a strong sense of patriarchy
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What did it believe about the head of the family?
They held exclusive authority and would provide food, a roof and security
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They claimed to represent who?
The common people
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When did the social question emerge?
1820s onwards
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What did socialism want for society?
A perfect society originating from an agreement of free men
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There was a utopian socialism. It wanted to do 4 main things, name one.
Re-establish a harmonious relationship between workers
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There was a utopian socialism. It wanted to do 4 main things, name one.
Reduce private competition
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There was a utopian socialism. It wanted to do 4 main things, name one.
Regain a sense of community
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There was a utopian socialism. It wanted to do 4 main things, name one.
Organise society into small groups
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What did materialist socialism believe?
Material conditions should govern the world rather than ideas
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What was materialist socialism also known as and by who's writings?
Dialectes materialism, by Karl Marx's writings
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What did the 1848 communist manifesto present?
Issues of class struggle
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It also summarised Marx's theories about.......
Nature of society and politics
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Libertarian socialism was also known as.....
Anarchism
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What did this socialism reject and what did it lean towards?
It rejected the state and leaned towards a decentralised structure of government
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They believed a free and just society could be made by........
abolishing authoritarian institutions
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It wanted federalism, what does this mean?
A mixed structure of government combining general government with small councils etc.
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It also believed in mutualism, what was this?
Advocates society where each person possesses means of production
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What does means of production mean?
A person has the facilities and resources to produce their own goods
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Their goal was accuracy, what was this?
Negotiation of government where society was not coerced but was a source of voluntary order
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the economic function of the nobility?

Back

Rent from inherited assets or assets that justified a new nobility status

Card 3

Front

What was the economic function of the bourgeoisie?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the economic function of the working class?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The moral ground was held by which class?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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