Ag science lecture 16 - the ruminant digestive tract

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Name 3 farmed animal ruminent species
Cow, sheep, goat.
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Define a 'Ruminant'
An even toed ungulate mammal that chews the cud regurgitated from its rumen.
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Define the teeth of a ruminant
Specialised to cope with a high proportion of organic matter. No upper incisors (hard incisors)
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When is saliva produced?
All the time with NO digestive enzymes. High PH.
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What is the purpose of rumination?
Decrease particle size for microbes. Increase saliva production to buffer rumen acidity.
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What type of the tissue is the esophagus constructed out of?
muscular tissue
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Do ruminants have a crop?
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WHat is the process called that moves a food bolus down the esophagus form the pharynx to the stomach?
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Is peristalsis **** or bi directional?
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What is the purpose of rumination?
decrease particle size for microbes. increase saliva production to buffer rumen activity.
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Which order is the 4 stomachs in a ruminant?
Rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum.
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4 characteristics of the rumen?
Located next to the heart. Honeycomb appearance. Muscular pillars. Fermentaion vat primarily for anaerobic respiration.
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is the rumen functional at birth?
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4 functions of the rumen
Storage. Soaking. Phyical mixing and breakdown. Fermentation
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Name 2 things which are synthesized in the rumen?
Vitamins. amino acids (proteins)
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Do the microbes in the rumen have a long or short life span?
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What two types of microbes exist within the rumen?
Starch fermentors. cellulose/roughage fermentors.
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What does the microbial population and type depend upon?
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Why is maintaining a healthy mixture of microbes in the rumen good?
It is essential for rumen function.
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3 main end products of fermentation in the gut.
volatile fatty acids. Ammonia. Gases.
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Do the volatile fatty acids contain energy?
Yes - they are the main source of energy for the cow.
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what is ammonia used for as a bi product of rumination?
used to manufacture microbial protein
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What is the gases used for after rumination?
Expelled, wasted energy.
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What can rapid changes in diet lead to?
upset microbes in the rumen.Changes fermentation patterns. Reduced forage digestion.
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2 Omasum characteristics?
Big tissue folds internally. No digestive enzymes.
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What is the function on the Omasum?
Reduce particle size of food to increase surface area. Absorb some water.
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How many and what are the enzymes that are secreted by the Abomasum. They are collectively know as gastric juice.
renin. Lipase. HCI. Pepsinogen. Mucus.
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What are these gastric juices similar too?
The ones found in a monogastric.
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Which part of the intestine does the pancreas secrete digestive enzymes into?
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What 3 digestive enzymes does the pancreas produce?
Lipase, Peptidases, amylase.
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Where is bile produced?
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Where is bile stored?
Gall bladder.
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Where is bile secreted into?
Duodenum - Small intestine.
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What is the function of bile?
To emulsify.
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Ruminant animals are born with an esophagal grove - what is its function?
This bypasses the retisulum, rumen and omasum in suckling young animals. Milk goes to the abomasum.
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When milk is drunk, which chamber of the stomach does it enter?
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What 3 enzymes cause the milk to clot in the abomasum?
Rennin, pepsin, hydrochloric acid.
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What happens to the whey (vits, mins, lactose, whey protiens) when the milk clots and seperates?
quickly moves to the small intestine where it is quickly absorbed.
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what is burping otherwise known as?
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What are two prouducts of eructation?
Carbon dioxide and methane.
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What can occur if the ruminant does not belch?
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What can lead to bloat?
Not eructating and a legume rich pasture for ruminants at grass.
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4 Clinical signs of bloat
Abdominal distention. Reluctant to move. Vocalisation and anxiety. Respiratory distress.
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Card 2


Define a 'Ruminant'


An even toed ungulate mammal that chews the cud regurgitated from its rumen.

Card 3


Define the teeth of a ruminant


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Card 4


When is saliva produced?


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Card 5


What is the purpose of rumination?


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