Ag science - lec 13 - monogastric digestive tracts

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4 points of digestion
Ingestion, food breakdown, absorption, utilisation
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3 different types of food breakdown
mechanic, chemical, microbial
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Differences in gut sturcture
Herbivore - Large and complex (Some ruminiant, some monogastric). omnivore - shorter and simpler gut. Carnivore - shortest and simplist
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Purpose of salivary glands?
Secrete saliva, bind food together, aid taste, contains enzymes (amylase) to help break food down
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Do carnivores chew more or less than herbivores?
Less.
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2 problems when swallowing?
Defies gravity, should prevent food and water entering the trachea.
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3 events involved in swallowing?
Bolus moves to back of throat. Sense receptors stimulate impulses to the brain. Reflex actions initiated.
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What is peristalsis?
the process by which food is moved down the oesephegagus.
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what is the stomach made out of?
Different types of tissue including muscle tissue, lined with mucus.
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What can damage to the mucus layer in the stomach lead to?
Ulceration.
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What is the purpose of the stomach? (4)
Food store. Secrete gastric juice. Mix food and gastric juices. Physically break food down.
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3 key things produced in the stomach?
Pepsin. Hydrochloric acid. Mucus.
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How is pepsinogen formed?
When hydrochloric acid is mixed with pepsin.
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What food is pepsin reponsible for digesting?
protein
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Describe to acidity of a piglets stomach after birth.
Higher PH at birth so as not to denature the antibodies found in colostrum. It then lowers after 24 hours to help destroy pathogens.
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What does amylase break down?
Carbs
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What does lipase break down?
Fats
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What does pepsin break down?
Protein
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what does pancreatic juice contain? (3)
Amylase, lipase and pepsin
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What 3 things does intestinal juice do?
enzymes further progress digestion. Carbohydrates broken into simpler sugars. Polupeptides broken down into simpler amino acids.
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What does bile do?
Helps emulsify fats from droplets of thousands of molecules to smaller droplets of 10-50 molecules.
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Where is bile stored?
Gall bladder.
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Where is bile produced?
Liver.
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Digestion takes place in the first half of the small intestine called the ...... and the ......
Duodenum and the jejunum
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Absorption takes place in the second half of the intestine called the .....and the .......
jejunum and the ileum.
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Name the 4 sections of the large intestine.
Caecum, colon, rectum and the ****.
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what is the main function of the large intestine?
To reabsorb water from the faeces.
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What is the two main functions of the rectum?
To rebsorb water and to store faeces.
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How do you become constipated?
If faeces is stored too long in the faeces it becomes dried.
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How can diarrhea be caused?
Presence of viral toxins and bacteria can affect the reabsorption of water.
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Where are the livers two blood supplies from?
The heart and the gut.
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6 functions of the liver.
Carbohydrate metabolism. Lipid metabolism. Protein metabolism. Detoxification. Bile secretion. Storage of vitamins and inorganic elements.
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2 Roles of the pancreas.
Digestive role and a metabolic role.
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What 3 enzymes does the pancreas produce?
Amylase, lipase and peptisases.
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What 2 hormones does the pancreas produce?
Insulin. (lowers blood sugar) Glucagon. (increases blood sugar)
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What type of digestive system do all birds have?
Monogastric.
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What is the name of the sack that birds use to store food before digestion?
the 'crop'
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What is a 'gizzard'?
A muscular like stomach which uses ingested grit to help grind down feed.
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Define the 3 parts of the small intestine in a bird.
duodenum, jeudum, ileum.
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Do birds use the process of peristalsis to move the food down the oesphegus?
Yes.
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What is a caeca? and what happens within?
A large sack at the start of the large intestine used to store feed with minimal microbial activity.
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How many caeca does a bird have?
2
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What is the purpose of the colon in a bird?
Water absorption.
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What is the cloaca in a bird?
Ureters terminate here mixing urates and digestive waste. Also shared with the reproductive tract.
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What is the purpose of the proventriculus?
A stomach in which hydrochloric acid and pepsin are present. (Chemical digestion)
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List the order in which food passes through a monogastric digestive tract?
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, (accessory glands (Liver, gall bladder, pancreas)) small intestine (Duodenum, Jejunum, ileum) large intestine (caecum, colon, rectum, ****)
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Name the order in which food passes through an avian digestive tract
Beak, pharynx, oesphagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, accessory organs (liver, gall bladder, panceas) intestines, caeca, rectum & Cloaca, vent.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

3 different types of food breakdown

Back

mechanic, chemical, microbial

Card 3

Front

Differences in gut sturcture

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Purpose of salivary glands?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Do carnivores chew more or less than herbivores?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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