After a guilty verdict

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What is Azjen's theory of planned behaviour?
Cognitive theory that describes how if intentions and attitudes towards an action, e.g. staying out of prison, are positive then an individual is more likely to act in that way. It also suggests the importance of perceived behavioural control.
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How does Azjen's theory of planned behaviour apply to offenders and recidivism rates?
If offender has positive attitudes towards rehabilitation, &they believe they can be, more likely to be successful. Therefore, applied by improving attitudes relating to outside world, e.g. getting a job inside prison to gain experience.
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What study looks at planned behaviours once freed from jail?
Gillis and Nafekh
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What was the aim of Gillis and Nafekh?
To see the effect of a community-based employment scheme on recidivism rates.
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What was the sample of Gillis and Nafekh?
23, 525 Federal offenders on a conditional release - 95% men.
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What was the method of Gillis and Nafekh?
Content analysis using retrospective data. 2 groups: employed before release and unemployed before released. Matched on 9 characteristics, e.g. gender, risk level.
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What were the results of Gillis and Nafekh?
Those on employment schemes were more likely to remain on conditional release and less likely to commit a new offence. 15% less of 'employed' went back to prison, average time taken to return was also longer.
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What was the conclusion of Gillis and Nafekh?
Employment may be one way of reducing recidivism rates as it encourages positive attitudes towards release.
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Why might prison cause suicide?
Lack of freedom and repetitiveness have many psychological effects on inmates, not uncommon for delusions or hallucinations. Most common is increased risk of anxiety and depression. Many would have pre-existing disorders but triggered by prison.
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What did Dooley find about suicide rates?
4 times higher in prisons than the general populations. Those awaiting trial and those in first year are most likely to commit suicide
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What study is used to show depression/suicide in prison?
Dooley
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What was the aim of Dooley's study?
to investigate all unnatural deaths that occurred in prisons in England and Wales across a 15 year period.
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What was the method of Dooley's study?
Content analysis of 442 unnatural deaths using a checklist to analyse data, and deaths split into either suicides or non-suicides.
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What were the results of Dooley's study?
Out of 442, 300 were suicide, and 52 were the result of self-inflicted harm. Most occurred at night, and appeared to be a result of both pre-existing disorders and situationally induced
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What is the 3-I's theory?
Refers to how the inmate perceives their situation to be and this can affect whether they may attempt to kill themselves such as: Intolerable, Inescapable and Interminable.
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What did Zimbardo's study find?
Recruited students to perform the roles of prisoners and guards in a simulated prison, aimed to last for 2 weeks. Cancelled after 6 days due to the extreme behaviour shown. Concluded that environment &roles in prison have extreme effect on behaviour.
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What study is used to show prison situation and roles more recently?
Haney and Zimbardo
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What did Haney and Zimbardo summarise as the changes to prison system over 25 years?
"War on drugs"- huge prison population rise, with no parole. Huge public pressure to use prisons. Racial bias shown; more black men in prison than in college.
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What did Haney and Zimbardo suggest as improvements to the prison system?
Use prisons less due to psychological harm, more situationally specific assessments made of prisoners by unbiased source, more rehabilitation programmes implemented, more emphasis of individual differences of inmates & make allowances based on this.
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What is restorative justice?
Focuses on the rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims and the community at large. Typically, offender and victim encouraged to discuss the crime in the presence of an impartial facilitator.
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Why is restorative justice used?
Historically, crime was seen to be against the state rather than the individual victim. However, this made the victims&families feel their needs were ignored. RJ gives control&choice to the victim, a chance to ask questions&explain effect of crime.
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Why could restorative justice be seen as unhelpfu?
It can be a very distressing process for both the victim and the offender, and as details of the crime are brought up, it may be more traumatising than beneficial for the victim.
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What study looks at restorative justice?
Sherman and Strang
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What was the aim of Sherman and Strang?
to look at good practice in restorative justice and reach a conclusion on its effectiveness in terms of re-offending.
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What was the method of Sherman and Strang?
Content analysis of 36 papers which compared reconviction rates of offenders on RJ programmes and offenders who did not experience RJ.
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What were the results of Sherman and Strang?
RJ found more effective in cases with personal victims, especially in violent and property crimes. More effective in improving mental health (by reducing post traumatic shock symptoms) than reoffending rate.
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What was the conclusion of Sherman and Strang?
Some support for increased use of RJ, particularly for young offenders.
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What is probation?
Involves offender undertaking to follow rules including staying out of trouble, attending appointments with probation officers, keeping contact details up to date and attending work programmes. Breaking probation has severe consequences, e.g. prison
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What study looks at the effectiveness of probation?
Mair and May
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What was the aim of Mair and May?
to investigate the experiences of offenders on probation in a cross section of offices across England and Wales.
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What was the sample of Mair and May?
Over 3000 offenders, though 40% attrition.
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What was the method of Mair and May?
Interviews - focusing on likelihood to reoffend and their lifestyles.
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What were the results of Mair and May?
88% found useful, however only 37% said would stop reoffending. Over 1/3 went on to reoffend.
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What was the conclusion of Mair and May?
Probation seen in positive light (mainly because seen as easy sentence to avoid prison) but would be most effective when combined with therapies or employment schemes.
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What is the death penalty?
Individual sentenced to death as a punishment for committed crime. Not used in UK but is in some US states.
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What study is used to show that "looking deathworthy" increases chance of being given the death penalty?
Eberhardt et al
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What did Eberhardt hypothesise?
the more "stereotypically black" your features, the more likely it is that you'll receive the death penalty in eligible cases.
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What was the aim of Eberhardt's study?
to find support for his hypothesis.
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What was the method of Eberhardt's study?
Analysis of database of death-eligible cases in Philadelphia over 20 years. In 44 of cases, black men murdered white victim. Photos shown to naive raters and asked to rate men on how stereotypically black they were.
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What were the results of Eberhardt's study?
Men with the most stereotypical features given death penalty 57.4% of the time; effect of black stereotypical features just showed up in cases with white victims.
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What was the conclusion of Eberhardt's study?
Stereotypically black men are seen as more death-worthy, showing that racism may have an impact on who gets the death penalty.
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What is a cognitive skills programme based on?
Based on the cognitive approach's explanation of turning to crime that criminals have distorted cognitions that cause their offending.
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What is reasoning and rehabilitation (R&R)?
Targets moral development and encourages offender to take social perspective on their behaviour, hoping to discourage them to offend if they understand the effects their actions have on others and how to think more morally.
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What is enhanced thinking skills (ETS)?
Targets aspects of cognition such as self-control, and aim to boost pro-social behaviour by teaching interpersonal communication skills.
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What study looks at using cognitive skills treatments as a treatment programme for criminal behaviour?
Cann
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What was the aim of Cann?
To see if cognitive skills programmes are effective in reducing reoffending
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What was the sample of Cann?
180 offenders who started ETS or R&R compared with 540 who did not. All women.
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What was the method of Cann?
Expected 2 year conviction rates and actual reconviction rates (1&2 years) calculated. Both ETS and R&R also examined for effectiveness.
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What were the results of Cann?
No significant difference between: treated & comparison group for either expected or actual rates; for ETS bur R&R found more likely to reoffend.
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What was the conclusion of Cann?
No significant evidence for a positive effect. Cann suggested that this was because the therapies were made for men: women offend for different reasons, inappropriate for women's needs, not delivered consistently in women's prisons & limited in time.
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What is anger?
Anger is a strong emotion which many offenders struggle to control, and aggression is strongly associated with anti-social behaviour such as offending.
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What is the main anger management course?
Controlling Anger and Learning to Manage it (CALM)
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What is CALM?
Targets males. Consists of 24 two hour sessions-aim to reduce the frequency, intensity &duration of anger. 6 stages; focuses mainly on thinking patterns, learning how to solve problems without anger, improving communication &prevent relapses of anger
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What is the study used to show anger management as a treatment programme?
Ireland
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What was the aim of Ireland?
to assess if anger management programmes work with a group of young male offenders
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What was the sample of Ireland?
50 who had anger management compared to control group of 37. Matched on: responses to cognitive behavioural interview, self report questionnaire and Wing Behavioural Checklist (29 'angry' behaviours)
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What was the method of Ireland?
Quasi experiment - measures used to match given before and after treatment (or no treatment)
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What was the results of Ireland?
Experimental group rated themselves less angry after treatment, also rated less angry by officers. 92% showed improvement on at least one behavioural measure. However, 8% did deteriorate.
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What did Ireland conclude?
Short term helped the prisoners, but study did not have any reconviction rates so cannot tell if it would improve these.
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What does ear acupuncture set out to help
Drug-addictions
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Why is treating drug addictions a way of treating criminal behaviour?
Drugs addiction has strong links to offending as they both lower inhibitions and inhibit cognitive functioning. Drug addicted prisoners are also highly confrontational.
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What study shows the use of ear acupuncture as a treatment programme?
Wheatley
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What was the sample of Wheatley?
350 prisoners from high security prisons who had received ear acupuncture along side the standard care programme 'FOCUS'; compared to control group only got standard care.
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What was the method of Wheatley?
2 trained practitioners worked with group of 10-15 prisoners in relaxed setting. 5 needles in 5 acupuncture points in ear and relaxed for 40 mins. Both qual and quant data collected.
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What were the results of Wheatley?
Qual: P's reported better sleep and coping skills, amended cognitions, more communication with families. Staff also reported a difference. Quant: 70% reduction in drug related incidences, 41% reduction in serious incidence reports.
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What did Wheatley conclude?
Enough support to expand the delivery of the ear acupncture programme.
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Card 2

Front

How does Azjen's theory of planned behaviour apply to offenders and recidivism rates?

Back

If offender has positive attitudes towards rehabilitation, &they believe they can be, more likely to be successful. Therefore, applied by improving attitudes relating to outside world, e.g. getting a job inside prison to gain experience.

Card 3

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What study looks at planned behaviours once freed from jail?

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Card 4

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What was the aim of Gillis and Nafekh?

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Card 5

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What was the sample of Gillis and Nafekh?

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