Africa and Medicine

HideShow resource information
When did David Livingstone's medicine cabinet for would-be tropical travellers go on sale?
1 of 205
Who marketed David Livingstone's travelling medicine cabinet?
An early pharmaceutical company in London
2 of 205
What were Livingstone's Rousers?
A miracle cure for malaria, pills made based on Livingstone's own recipe
3 of 205
Did Livingstone know about the mosquito borne parasite?
4 of 205
Did European society know that quinine alleviated symptoms of malaria?
5 of 205
When was quinine 'discovered' by Europeans?
In the 1820s by Portuguese Jesuit missionaries
6 of 205
What did Livingstone and his contemporaries think caused malaria?
Breathing in bad air in swampy areas
7 of 205
How was quinine useful in the conquest of Africa?
Allowed to travel further into the interior.
8 of 205
In the early 19th century what did Europeans believe caused illness?
Disorders in the blood, intestinal system. A lack of balance as a result of excess/deficiency
9 of 205
Was the theory of humours still in use in the early 19th century?
10 of 205
In the early 19th century what were bodily functions believed to be affected by?
Moral disposition
11 of 205
What does Etherington say about missionaries?
"The settler and the mining magnate merely wanted the Africans' land and labour. Missionaries wanted their souls."
12 of 205
In what ways did missionaries intervene in everyday life that early colonial state did not?
Education and healthcare
13 of 205
What was the interest of the early colonial state?
Establishing authority
14 of 205
What did the early colonial state need from Africans?
Translators and a healthy workforce
15 of 205
Who often ran the education paid for by early colonial governments?
16 of 205
By what decade were governments also concerned about the health of urban workers?
17 of 205
How does Fred Cooper describe the resources distribution of the colonial state?
18 of 205
What was an issue associated with missionary edcuation?
Opened up new division between the educated and uneducated within African societies
19 of 205
Why did African people want to be educated?
Aware that education opened up jobs
20 of 205
What do historians argue over?
Whether missionary schools were the ultimate display of how colonial imperialism controlled ways of living OR if they were beneficial as allowed Africans to work towards independence
21 of 205
What must be remembered about colonial power?
Did not lead to just political change
22 of 205
What were missionaries important enactors of?
Cultural change
23 of 205
What did colonialism bring to Africa?
Drastically altered ecologies, new contagious diseases and moved populations from healthy to unhealthy locations
24 of 205
What were European medical ideas in the early 19th century based on?
Understandings of bodies in imbalance, centred on blood and digestion
25 of 205
What had arrived by the end of the nineteenth century?
The beginning of medical ideas which are more familiar, such as gene theory and biomedicine
26 of 205
Several early missionary doctors such as David Livingstone were quite keen to learn about what?
African ideas of medicine
27 of 205
What was a negative part of the history of biomedicine?
The way it shut itself off from other healing systems and over time saw African healing systems as separate and primitive
28 of 205
By the end of the 19th century there was a dismissive attitude among medical doctors towards what?
African methods
29 of 205
What do Hartwig and Paterson (1878) see as "undoubtedly" the unhealthiest period of African history?
30 of 205
What must be remembered about the unhealthiest period of African history?
Not to say colonialism is to blame or that Europeans meant to bring disease - it is not about blame but understanding
31 of 205
What is trypanosomiasis?
Sleeping sickness
32 of 205
Which group of Africans had known about sleeping sickness for a long time?
West Africans
33 of 205
How many people is it estimated were killed in sleeping sickness epidemic from 1860s onwards?
One million
34 of 205
A sleeping sickness epidemic begun in West Africa in 1860s. It spread through central Africa. What year did it reach Northern Rhodesia by?
35 of 205
What do many historians argue regarding European involvement in sleeping sickness epidemic?
European ignorance of balance of African communities with environment disrupted methods that had prevented spread of disease
36 of 205
What worsened the spread of sleeping sickness?
Mfecane Wars and slave trade
37 of 205
What spreads sleeping sickness?
Tsetse fly
38 of 205
Where is tsetse fly and animals it lived on from?
Bush areas
39 of 205
What did farmers do to protect from tsetse fly?
Cut down bushes and live save distance away with complicated zoning
40 of 205
What was the pathway of zonings regarding the tsetse fly?
Wild animals - livestock - people
41 of 205
Did Europeans know about the zoning practice with regards to the tsetse fly?
42 of 205
How did the colonial administration worsen the situation regarding the tsetse fly?
Took everyone as far away from the bush as possible which allowed bush to incubate and disease to spread further afield
43 of 205
What disease worsened the effect of sleeping sickness?
44 of 205
What was rinderpest?
Cattle disease
45 of 205
How did rinderpest worsen sleeping sickness issue?
Upset the balance of farming systems that had been helping to keep the tsetse fly at bay
46 of 205
Who brought rinderpest to the Horn of Africa?
Possibly the Italians or British who had imported cattle to feed troops.
47 of 205
What percentage of cattle could rinderpest destroy?
Up to 90% in some instances
48 of 205
In which communities was rinderpest particularly devastating?
Where coincided with European settlement
49 of 205
Where did smallpox occur?
Areas also affected by drought beginning in 1880s and lasting until 1920s
50 of 205
Why did colonial governments order compulsory purchasing of food?
Feed troops
51 of 205
When was there famine in East Africa?
1880s and 1890s
52 of 205
When was there famine in West Africa?
1913 to 1914
53 of 205
When was there famine in French equatorial Africa?
From 1918 to the mid 1920s
54 of 205
What was the biggest killer disease?
Spanish Influenza
55 of 205
In most African colonies what percentage of the population were killed by Spanish Influenza?
Between 2% and 5%
56 of 205
How did smallpox often spread?
Along the new colonial transport links that had just been built
57 of 205
What created new and unhealthy environments which people lived in?
Mining industry in particular
58 of 205
According to Megan Vaughan (1991), in British colonial Africa, what did medicine and associated disciplines help create?
Construction of 'the African' as object of knowledge which was "intrinsic to the operation of colonial power"
59 of 205
How could medical encounters sometimes breach the distinctions between people that colonialism tried to reinforce?
Often involved quite intimate contact between men and women and white and black people.
60 of 205
What concerned Chief Makaba when Robert Moffat talked to him about Jesus in 1842?
"I do not want to hear again about the dead rising! I have slain many thousands, and shall they arise?
61 of 205
What do Joan and Jean Comaroff see as the essence of colonialism?
"inheres less in political overrule than in seizing and transforming 'others'... interacting with them on terms not of their choosing
62 of 205
What does Kirk Arden Hope see British sleeping sickness control in colonial Uganda and Tanzania as?
"a powerful mechanism for environmental and social engineering"
63 of 205
How many people were killed by the sleeping sickness outbreak in Uganda at the turn of the 20th century?
250,000 approx
64 of 205
What led British disease control officials to forcibly depopulate areas infested with tsetse fly and organise African labour to clear vegetation along roads and beaches?
Ugandan sleeping sickness epidemic
65 of 205
Beginning in the Tanganyika Protectorate after 1920, where did colonial officials concentrate people?
Strategically located new villages, surrounded by depopulated tsetse areas
66 of 205
In the Tanganyika Protectorate what did colonial officials have Africans do?
Cut and burn large swathes of land as barriers to the spread of the tsetse fly between depopulated and settled land
67 of 205
What was the consequence of the campaign against sleeping sickness, involving tens of thousands of Africans, that lasted until the end of British colonial rule?
Depopulation of thousands of miles of territory
68 of 205
In depopulated areas, who were the only people it wasn't illegal to be present?
Colonial scientists and administrators, their African agents
69 of 205
What was the negative of the depopulation of areas?
Made the land less attractive to future resettlement but very attractive to tsetse as bush filled
70 of 205
What does Kirk Arden Hope argue that colonial sleeping sickness control shows?
Emerging Western ideas and institutional powers of public health linked to environmental intervention
71 of 205
In Tanganyika what was the reason for sleeping sickness control?
Was not a response to a particular epidemic but to fears of rapidly expanding tsetse infestations
72 of 205
Where does Kirk Arden Hope see sleeping sickness control as "central components to the occupation and organization"?
Economically and politically marginal areas
73 of 205
When did the British assume formal colonial control of Uganda?
74 of 205
When the British assumed formal colonial control of Uganda, what was happening there?
An epidemic was raging in Busoga
75 of 205
In Busoga in 1903 what did colonial scientists make a connection between?
Tsetse, protozoan parasites known as trypanosomes and sleeping sickness
76 of 205
Where in Uganda did medical officials depopulate?
Lake Victoria shore and islands, areas to the north of Buganda, territory often outside direct British and Gandan control
77 of 205
When did the sleeping sickness epidemic in Uganda abate?
After World War I
78 of 205
After the sleeping sickness epidemic in Uganda abated, where did the British continental focus of sleeping sickness research go?
The newly acquired British protectorate of Tanganyika
79 of 205
How does the French journal the 'Tunisian Review' describe doctors at the turn of the twentieth century?
"The doctor is the true conqueror, the peaceful conqueror."
80 of 205
What is the distribution of sleeping sickness directly linked to?
Range of the tsetse fly
81 of 205
How many of the 20 species of tsetse live in East Africa?
82 of 205
What conditions are lethal to tsetse?
Extreme dryness, wetness, heat and cold
83 of 205
Prior to colonial settlement how did people tend to live?
Scattered settlements
84 of 205
What were the positives of living in scattered settlements?
Kept bush and sleeping sickness at bay over wide area
85 of 205
What led people to abandon dispersed habitats?
Heightened levels of insecurity in the age of Mirambo among others - self-defence
86 of 205
How many people were killed around the northern shore of Lake Victoria in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century?
87 of 205
According to Richard J. Reid, how many people may have been killed by sleeping sickness in equatorial Africa?
Up to 90% of the population
88 of 205
What percentage of cattle, buffalo, eland, giraffe, wildebeast etc were killed by rinderpest?
89 of 205
In South Africa how many cattle were lost due to rinderpestt?
2.5 million
90 of 205
What was the consequence of the rinderpest epidemic for the Masai tribe in Kenya?
Reduced to starvation
91 of 205
What was the combined effect of rinderpest and a smallpox epidemic for the Masai in Kenya?
Severely reduced their numbers
92 of 205
As a result of the reduced numbers of Masai, what happened when colonisers moved into Kenya?
Found great tracts of empty land, probably formerly populated by the Masai
93 of 205
Did the Masai ever regain their supremacy over the Kikuyu tribe?
94 of 205
Rinderpest arrived in the pastures of Natal and Zululand in late 1896. What disasters had already befell the area, leading to starvation?
Locust swarms and drought
95 of 205
What were Natal government authorities worried about in Zulu homesteads?
Incidents of sexual rebellion
96 of 205
What took precedence - sexual rebellion or rinderpest?
97 of 205
Why did rinderpest take precedence for the government authorities of Natal in South Africa?
Threatened white owned commercial livestock
98 of 205
In 1897 in South Africa what did policemen, magistrates and veterinarians set out to do?
Innoculate healthy cattle with a vaccine concocted from bodily matter of cow afflicted with rinderpest
99 of 205
Who had invented the rinderpest vaccine?
Doctor Robert Koch
100 of 205
Why was Doctor Robert Koch invited to South Africa?
To immunise agents and assets of European progress?
101 of 205
Where was one of the places in the world where smallpox was highly endemic?
102 of 205
In the first half of the twentieth century only which areas exceeded Africa in the number of cases of smallpox?
103 of 205
What can be seen as justification for the higher number of cases of smallpox in Asia?
India and Pakistan had highly concentrated populations
104 of 205
In the first years after the World Health Organisation voted to eradicate smallpox what were the number of cases of smallpox in Africa?
In 1959 15,781; 1960 16,127 1961 24,182
105 of 205
In Europe how many cases of smallpox were there between 1959 and 1961?
89 cases of smallpox
106 of 205
What was the incidence rate of smallpox in Tanganyika in 1962?
107 of 205
What was the incidence rate of smallpox in India in 1962?
108 of 205
Where was the highest incidence rate of smallpox found in 1962?
Congo (Brazza)
109 of 205
What was the incidence rate of smallpox in Congo (Brazza) in 1962?
110 of 205
How many countries reported more than 500 cases of smallpox in 1962?
Three Asian countries and fourteen African countries
111 of 205
For most years between 1928 and 1966 in Africa how many cases of smallpox were there?
Between 15,000 and 30,000 cases
112 of 205
When was there a sharp increase in smallpox cases?
World War II - large numbers of men mobilised for national service
113 of 205
By the time that Europeans moved to occupy Africa how much experience of Jenner's improved method of vaccination at home had they?
A century
114 of 205
By 1900 where had smallpox declined dramatically?
A number of European countries, including all those with colonies in Africa
115 of 205
Why had smallpox cases declined dramatically in many European countries?
Systematic vaccination and revaccination programmes with glycerated calf-derived vaccine
116 of 205
What was one of the first and most widely practiced medical interventions in African colonies
Smallpox vaccination
117 of 205
When did colonial medical services expand?
Between the wars and especially after 1945
118 of 205
Vaccinations for what disease overshadowed others in terms of the number of people reached?
119 of 205
1954 health service report for French West Africa listed how many smallpox-yellow fever vaccinations?
Over 3.6 million
120 of 205
1954 health service report for French West Africa smallpox only vaccinations
1.6 million
121 of 205
How many yellow fever only vaccinations were there reported in French West Africa in 1954?
87,529 vaccinations
122 of 205
How many tuberculosis (BCG) vaccinations were there in French West Africa in 1954?
53,994 vaccinations
123 of 205
What question was often asked in colonial health reports, especially in colonies where smallpox was under control?
Origin of new outbreaks of the disease
124 of 205
Where did new outbreaks of smallpox often originate?
Imported into the colony from outside
125 of 205
How could smallpox be imported into colony?
Traditional overland travel patterns (trade + pilgrimage across Sahara) and also new routes by investment in colonial transport, esp.. railways and seaports in early in colonial rule
126 of 205
What route did the smallpox epidemic of 1913-14 follow?
Dakar-St Louis Senegal railway line
127 of 205
Where was there a smallpox epidemic in 1909?
new Tanganyika raiwlway line
128 of 205
Where was there a smallpox epidemic in 1890?
Construction route of Matadi-Stanley Pool Railway in Congo
129 of 205
Which ports reported smallpox epidemics prior to the First World War?
Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar
130 of 205
Why was there very significant movement between colonies?
New colonial boundaries cut across populations and trade routes
131 of 205
Where is smallpox an ancient disease?
Kenya and the rest of Africa
132 of 205
What does Marc H. Dawson argue about patterns of smallpox transmission?
"patterns of transmission, the rates of endemicity and epidemicity and the measures employed to control the disease changed in the early twentieth century"
133 of 205
In Kenya what had significant effect on the way smallpox was spread and controlled?
Socioeconomic changes of the colonial period
134 of 205
What does Marc H. Dawson see as the most important cause of precolonial epidemics?
Social reaction to famine
135 of 205
What was the effect of the socioeconomic changes in Kenya during the colonial period on smallpox?
Caused the disease to appear more frequently in small local outbreaks with sizeable epidemics becoming more uncommon. Endemicity changed from low rates before 20th C to higher rates during early years of 20th C. Widespread epidemics became infrequent
136 of 205
What was unusual about the increased movement of epidemic diseases during the early colonial period?
Occurred without famine
137 of 205
Introduction of cash crops
138 of 205
Labor Migration
Larger and more frequent population movements
139 of 205
Larger and denser population
140 of 205
What was a positive aspect of smallpox vaccination?
Helped prevent vepidemics
141 of 205
What were the issues associated with the British vaccination campaign in Kenya?
Chronic underfunding, vaccine shortages,ineffective vaccines, local resistance --> local outbreaks frequently although only occasional widespread epidemics
142 of 205
After the 1897-1900 outbreak, smallpox did not occur in rural central Kenya on an areawide scale until when?
143 of 205
In rural central Kenya between 1900 and 1912 how do most district and medical reports refer to smallpox occurences?
"sporadic cases" or appearing in "mild form"
144 of 205
In the precolonial era there was trade and travel to different areas. Give an example.
Some of the precolonial Kikuyu markets were held regularly and attended by over 1,000 people, some of whom travelled great distances to attend
145 of 205
What were the two groups labour migration had an effect on the epidemiology of smallpox through?
labourers themseles and on the population in reserve
146 of 205
Several witnesses before the 1912/13 Native Labour Commission in Kenya testified what?
Returning labourers had contracted smallpox while working away from home
147 of 205
Can instances be found of local smallpox epidemics originating from a returning traveler?
148 of 205
Prior to what date funding for medical care for Africans was not a high priority in the colonial budget
149 of 205
Why did many Africans refuse to be vaccinated?
Fear of being poisoned or simply afraid of painful experience
150 of 205
How did anticolonial movements utilise smallpox vaccinations?
Mumbo cult in Nyanza Province of Kenya from 1913 used vaccination campaigns as vehicle to express discontent
151 of 205
In the 1940s in Kenya what was the consequence of an inability to deal with smallpox effectively?
Thousands of deaths
152 of 205
How was Spanish influenza brought to South Africa?
Soldiers returning from WWI - boats arrived in major ports
153 of 205
How was Spanish influenza described in the Xhosa language?
umbathala - disaster
154 of 205
From October to November 1918 where in South Africa was ravaged by Spanish Influenza?
Transkei and Ciskei in the rural Eastern Cape
155 of 205
Surrounding Spanish influenza, when the colonial public health officials brought flu innoculation kits to black reserve what rumours often followed
"long needle" of "white man" came to inject more harm
156 of 205
The Christian Express reported in late 1918 that Xhosa messengers were doing what? (vaccination)
Warning of a device "to finish off the Native races of South Africa... sending out men with poison to complete the work of extermination"
157 of 205
What did bacteriologists reccomend?
Mandatory innoculations
158 of 205
How did black people increasingly view vaccination medical campaigns?
Strategy to boost white supremacy
159 of 205
In a modern map of public spending on healthcare, what has happened to West Africa?
Almost disappeared
160 of 205
In Christian worldview of missionaries as well as mindview of many Africans, what was there a link between?
Spiritual healing and medical healing
161 of 205
Missionaries recede in importance providing healthcare in late colonial and post-colonial period but missionaries from where remain important in modern discourses of HIV/AIDS etc?
162 of 205
What does Megan Vaughan criticise about Western bio-medicine?
Tends to focus upon individual pathologies and biological reasons for illness rather than social issues
163 of 205
In Africa biomedicine sought social explanations for natural phenomenons. According to Vaughan what is the significance of this?
May usually think of biomedicine as separate from social and political discourses - shows that is not the case
164 of 205
According to Fred Cooper how did colonial empires differ from other forms of domination?
"by their effort to reproduce social orcultural difference"
165 of 205
What was the significance of difference to colonialism (Fred Cooper)?
No matter how conquered learn will never quite get to level of their master
166 of 205
Ideas regarding Africa began to change in 1920s with 'difference' attributed to culture
Sickness due to deculturation/detribalisation
167 of 205
What were colonial officials often afraid of?
Social disintegration
168 of 205
When did women become noticed by colonial offciials?
When realised they did not appear to be able to be controlled by African men - e.g. when start moving to towns in their own right
169 of 205
What were issues that affected the interwar years?
Low fertility rates and sexual diseases
170 of 205
How were low fertility rates and sexual diseases viewed by colonial officials and medical doctors?
Not as consequences of poverty and living conditons but as due to immorality and abandonment of tribal/Christian values
171 of 205
medical pluralism
Argument that African healing systems remained as a viable treatment option
172 of 205
Did African healing systems survive in isolation from biomedicine?
No, was alongside. Can absorb some of the aspects of practice.
173 of 205
In Ghana from 1974-1985 how much did public health spending fall?
By 60%
174 of 205
There was rapid extension of healthcare. Why did it then decline following this?
SAPs and contraction
175 of 205
In 1965 what was the life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa?
42 years
176 of 205
The life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa increased during 1990s but then fell. What was life expectancy in 2003?
46 years. [Access to biomedicine increasingly dependent on wealth]
177 of 205
What acts as an alternative framework when the state contracts?
178 of 205
The number of Africans calling themselves Christian rose from 34 million to 200 million between which years
179 of 205
Independent churches
Small local churches offering ideas about social healing
180 of 205
Pentecostal churches
Personal salvation through repentance. Often interested in ideas about globalising modernity. Antagonistic towards African traditions. Links to miionaries.
181 of 205
Give an example of an Islamist movement that was thriving at the same time as Christianity grew
Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt
182 of 205
From when did HIV exist in western equatorial Africa?
From at least 1959 (first diagnosis recorded)
183 of 205
Where was the first urban epidemic of HIV in Africa?
Middle of continent
184 of 205
Where was first rural epidemic of HIV in Africa?
Border region between Tanzania and Uganda
185 of 205
When did HIV reach South Africa?
mid-1980s at time of urban unrest and impoerishment
186 of 205
By 2005 how many people in Africa are estimated to be HIV positive?
Around 25 million people
187 of 205
By 2005 how many African people are estimated to have died of HIV?
13 million
188 of 205
By 2005, due to HIV, how many African children are without one or both parents?
12 million children
189 of 205
What is the issue with the people dying of HIV?
Often middle age at most productive time of life
190 of 205
How does Megan Vaughan describe the tone of medical discourses on AIDS in Africa, which are often reminiscent of colonial era discourses?
Africans "never get sick innocently"
191 of 205
What is notable about the first epidemic of HIV in Africa?
Was in a heterosexual population - explains why more contained elsewhere than in Africa
192 of 205
Factor contributing to spread of HIV - Women
Lower status of women in many badly affected societies, less control over sexual lives
193 of 205
Factor contributing to spread of HIV - Urbanisation
Rapid and often chaotic urbansatino
194 of 205
Factor contributing to spread of HIV - Young People
Exceptionally high proportion of young people within African societies
195 of 205
Factor contributing to spread of HIV - Medical Assistance
Inadequacies of medical assistance, especially by 1990s
196 of 205
In East Africa especially there are falling rates of HIV. Contributing factors?
Public education campaigns. Preaching sexual abstinence. ARVs reduce chance of mother to child transmission
197 of 205
What is arguably one of the most important legacies of the colonial history of medicine?
198 of 205
In South Africa what did the Medicines Act of 1997 say?
Allowed the medicine minister to override health patent laws in a 'health emergency' to get more affordable drugs
199 of 205
What was the response of global pharmaceutical companies to the Medicines Act?
Court case arguing prices should meet the research and development costs of drugs
200 of 205
When was the Treatmetn Action Campaign founded by HIV positive activists in South Africa?
201 of 205
There was a public campaign by TAC. In what year did the pharmaceutical companies withdraw their case and drop the price of anti-retroviral drugs, allowing some to be freely available to African countries?
202 of 205
Leader of South African government Mbeki at time case denied the link between HIV and AIDS. What else did he do?
Call ARVs toxic and claimed that garlic and lemon juice was more useful. High profile example of mistrust of medical care.
203 of 205
Treatment Action Campaign had public protests and a constitutional court case, arguing the failure of the South African government to provide ARVs to pregnant mothers at least was unconstitutional. In what year did they win their case?
204 of 205
In 2003 what did the South African government do?
Rolled out provision of ARVs to all South Africans, not just pregannt mothers
205 of 205

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Who marketed David Livingstone's travelling medicine cabinet?


An early pharmaceutical company in London

Card 3


What were Livingstone's Rousers?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Did Livingstone know about the mosquito borne parasite?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Did European society know that quinine alleviated symptoms of malaria?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Medicine and Missionaries resources »