USA 1955 to 1992

What was the US GDP in 1940?
$99.7 billion
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What was the US GDP in 1950?
$284.8 billion
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What was the US GDP in 1960?
$503.7 billion
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How much consumer credit was there in 1950?
$8.4 billion
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How much consumer credit was there in 1960?
$45 billion
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What was the average income for families in 1953?
$4,392 for white families and $2,461 for non white families
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What was the average income for families in 1960?
$5,835 for white families and $3,233 for non-white families
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How did the number of people living in urban areas change between 1950 and 1960?
It increased from 96.5m to 127.4m
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What was a levittown?
New suburban developments across the USA, which could consist of 17,000 houses each.
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How many people owned their own home in 1960?
Three in five
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How many people had moved to the suburbs by 1960?
18 million
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How many people lived in suburbs in 1970?
80 million
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What was the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956?
An act to construct a national network of roads, consisting of 42,500 miles and a cost of $25 billion.
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How did the number of cars being produced in the US change between 1946 and 1955?
It increased from 2 million to 8 million.
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What percentage of Americans owned a car in 1960?
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How many cars were on US roads in 1956?
75 million
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How many drive in theatres were there by 1963?
Over 3,000
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How many out of town shopping centres were there by 1963?
Over 4,000
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What percentage of women had a job in 1960?
40% of those over 16. Employment was increasing at a rate 4x quicker than that of men
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How much was defence spending in 1960?
$40 billion.
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What was the average income for a suburban family in 1955?
$6,500 a year. 70% higher than the national average
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How many residents in suburban America were black?
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What sort of films did well between 1955-63?
Escapist blockbuster films about war and adventure.
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What percentage of Americans were sexualy active by the age of 15 in 1953?
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What was the goal of CORE freedom rides?
To test the 1960 Boynton v Virginia, which outlawed segregation on interstate busses
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What happened at the Birmingham March?
MLK got arrested
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What was the 'Southern Manifesto?'
A group of congress who would try to make sure civil rights impact had little impact, such as the 1956 Civil Rights Act.
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What did JFK increase the minimum wage to and from in 1961?
$1 to $1.25
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What was the Area Development Act of 1961?
$394b over four years to aid areas such as the Appalachia
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What was the School assistance bill?
$2.3 billion over three years to construct new schools and raise teachers' salaries. Church schools were rejected and catholic bishops rejected the bill
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What did JFK use executive orders to do?
Increase school lunch and milk programmes so that 700,000 more children could have at least one hot meal a day
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What did the Higher Educational Facilities Act do?
Gave $145m in grants to graduate shcools
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What did the Trade Expansions Act of 1962 do?
Cut tariffs on average of around 35% between the USA and EEC and could cut tariffs by up to 50% with countries willing to welcome US goods.
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What did the Committee on Equal Employment opportunity do?
Allocated a proportion of federal job to black Americans.
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When was the Clean Air Act?
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How much land was added to National Parks throughout 1960 to 63?
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What else was added to the National Park?
6 national monuments, 20 historic sites, 50 wildlife refuges and eight national seashores
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What was the Peace Corps?
An organisation which would send American men and women to developing countries with technical and economic help. In the end it helped 46 countries with over 5,000 volunteers
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How much was allocated to fund the space race in 1961?
An extra $7-9b over the next 5 years.
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When was LBJ in office?
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What was the Education Act of 1965?
It allocated $1 billion to help improve the quality of education seen in US schools
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What was the 1968 Bilingual Education Act?
It helped non English speakers learn how to speak English
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What was the 'Head Start Programme'?
Aimed to increase opportunities for poor people. Benefited over 8 million people
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What was the Higher Education Act of 1968?
Aimed to help the poor get into university by offering loans and grants
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What was the 1965, Housing and Urban Development Act?
Build 240,000 and $2.9 billion for urban renewal
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What was the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Areas Act of 1966?
LG's given 80% grants to deal with things such as crime and healthcare. Increasing costs from $412m to $512m
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What was wealth distribution like?
Top 20% owned 77% of the wealth and the bottom 20% owned 0.5%. 20-25% of Americans were nearly unable to pay for food and accomodation
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What was the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964?
Set up the Office of Economic Opportunity. Allowed the Middle Classes to help the poor, had over 3,000 volunteers. VISTA
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What was the Community Action programme?
Allowed African-Americans and the poor to partake in Federal Programmes
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What was the Jobs Corps?
An organisation which was set up to try and help youths into work, in the end it benefited 10,000 youths
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What was the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965?
Set aside $1.1b to improve living conditions in the Appalachia
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How much did the 'war on poverty' cost?
$10 billion
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What happened to the rate of poverty?
It dropped from 40m in 1959 to 28m in 1968
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What did the Housing act do?
Build 26m homes in 10 years, with the first three years costing $1.7b
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How was Malcolm X different to MLK?
He was more radical. He demanded full economic and social independence from the USA.
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What happened in 1966?
SNCC expelled all white members and in 1967 replaced Stokely Carmichael with Henry 'Rap' Brown.
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When did Black Power come to international attention?
1968 Mexican Olympics. Tommy Smith and John Carlos made the Black Power salute.
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What happened to the Black Panthers in 1969?
28 members were shot by police.
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What happened to the Black Panthers in 1972?
Membership began to decline due to FBI clampdowns
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What happened in 1964?
'Freedom Summer' an attempt to increase the number of AA's eligible to vote. This was met with violence by the KKK
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What did MLK do after this?
A march from Selma to Montgomery. The March contributed directly to the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act.
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What was the March in Chicago supposed to do in 1966?
Try and raise awareness about desegregating housing. It was poorly organised and faced heavy white resistance.
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What declined MLK's respect in 1967?
He opposed US involvement in Vietnam and changed his priorities to tackling the poor social and economic positions of many blacks.
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What was the Chicano Movement?
Lead by Cesar Chavez. Was to try and improve pay and working conditions of hispanic workers. In 1965 there were strikes and a boycott of Californian Grapes.
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How many members did the United Farmworkers' union register?
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What happened to the Chicano movement?
It split due to plans to include hispanic university students and began to splinter into radical and moderate groups.
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How many student protests took place in 1968?
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What happened in 1967?
500,000 marchers went to NYC's central park and burnt their draft cards.
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What was the Woodstock Festival 1969?
A music festival which was for a more liberal audience and attracted over 40,000.
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How man women were in full time employment by 1965?
More than 25 million.
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When was NOW founded?
In 1966 by 300 feminist activists
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When was the Women's Liberation Movement?
1967 and 1968. Was more radical than NOW and reached national attention when it protested outside of the Miss America Beauty Pageant.
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How did the number of women using the pill change between 1962 and 1965?
It increased from 1.5m to 6.5m
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How much did the divorce rate change?
By 100% in the 1960s and increased by another 82% by 1982.
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When was the first male gay rights group set up?
In 1950 (the Mattachine society) and five years later the Daughters of Bilitis was formed (1955)
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When were the Stonewall Riots?
1968 and was due to a police raid in NYC. It lead to three days of rioting
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When was homosexuality no longer classed as a mental illness?
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When did San Francisco elect its first gay official?
1977 with Harvey Milk. He was later assassinated due to him being a homosexual.
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When did Nixon make a call to the 'Silent Majority'?
November 1969
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What percentage of Americans supported Nixon's Vitnam policy?
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Who were the silent majority?
Those against anything which goes against tradition, such as homosexuality, drugs and Yippies.
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What percentage of Americans trusted Walter Cronkite as the most reliable public figure?
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What happened at Kent State in 1970?
Four students were shot dead due to protests against the Vietnam war.
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What was new federalism?
Was where more power would be handed back to the states.
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What was the Family Assistance plan?
Proposed to end hand-outs to the poor. Low-income families were guaranteed an annual income of between $1,500 to $2,000 per year. The measure was defeated in congress.
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What did the 1972 Educational Standards Act do?
Made it so that colleges must set up affirmative action programmes to ensure equality of opportunity for women.
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What was the Philadelphia plan?
Required trade unions working on federal projects to accept quotas for black American workers.
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What was the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970?
Increased social security benefits by linking them to the rate of inflation.
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What did the National Environment Policy Act of 1970 do?
It created the environmental protection agency.
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What was congress like?
It was dominated by Democrats. 58/100 seats in congress and 243/435 seats in the House of Representatives were democrats
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When did the USA abandon the Bretton Woods Agreement?
In 1971 and it began to float the dollar against other currencies.
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How was Nixon's foreign policy?
It helped improve relations with the USSR and China
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What was Watergate?
It was a burglary at the Democratic Party's presidential campaigns headquarters in 1972
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What was the Privacy Act of 1974?
It required the president to report to Congress on all undercover operations by intelligence agencies.
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What was the Ethics in Government Act of 1978?
It required all senior government officials to disclose their finances. It also created the Office of Government ethics.
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When was Ford in office?
October 1973 to 1976.
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What issues did Ford face whilst in office?
Issues with Cambodia and Laos and Vietnam falling to communist forces. Also faced issues with rising inflation and unemployment. Furthermore he had to restore the reputation of the presidency.
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Why was Carter unique compared to other presidents?
He was not tainted by any political links and was more personal and liked being called 'Jimmy'
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What happened to voter turnout?
It had fallen from at least 60% in the 1950s and 60s to 54% in 1976 and 53% in 1980
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What did Carter do when in office?
He surrounded himself with the 'Georgia Mafia', advisers from his own state. He also tried to micromanage the economy.
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What issue was Carter's biggest challenge during his time in office?
The OPEC oil crisis of 1973 which increased the price of oil by 400%. This in which increased inflation, stagnation and unemployment within the US economy.
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How much unemployment was there in 1978?
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How much inflation was there?
13% by 1980
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How much did interest rates increase to?
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What damaged Carter's personality?
Foreign affairs. The 1979 Iranian Hostage crisis. In April 1980, Carter ordered a military rescue but the helicopters crashed in the desert. Furthermore, the USSR invasion of Afghanistan was a humiliation to the USA.
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What was the USA's response to the USSR invasion of Afghanistan?
A boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics, which was followed by a total of 64 nations.
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What happened in the 1980 election?
Reagan won by 44m votes to Carter's 35.5m.
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What was set up in 1970 relating to the environment?
Environmental Protection Agency and Occupational Safety and Health Administration
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What other acts were passed?
The Clean Air Act in 1970, Endangered species Act in 1973 and a Toxic substances Control Act in 1976.
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During Carter's presidency, what three major environmental issues grabbed national headlines?
Love Canal in NYC became full of industrial waste. $30m dollars were spent in its clear up. Three Mile Island (Nuclear accident causing no new nuclear reactors being built). Telico Dam in 1979.
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What was created to help clear up toxic sites?
A superfund by Congress, which would spend $1 billion a year.
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How much did the price of a McDonald's hamburger increase by between 1967 and 1981?
From 15 cents to 50 cents.
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How much was industrial growth between 1972 and 1978?
1% compared to 3.2% in the years 1945-55. Germany and Japan had productivity growth levels of four to five percent.
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How much did the minimum wage increase to and from between 1975 and 1981?
$2.10 to $3.35
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What happened to the standard of living in comparison to the rest of the world?
It fell to fifth, behind Switzerland, Denmark and Sweden.
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How many people were living in poverty in the 1970s?
12% or 25 million
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How many Philadelphians were on welfare support between 1970 and 1980?
200,000 increasing to 340,000 (more than 20% of the populations)
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What was proposition 13? (1978)
It cut taxes by 57% (in california), which severely damaged welfare support systems.
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How much did the price of a barrel of oil increase to between 1973 and 1979?
From $3 to $34
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What percentage of USA petrol stations were closed in June 1979?
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How much oil did the US import (in $)
$4b in 1970 increasing to $80b in 1980.
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How many workers did General Motors, Ford and Chrysler lay off in 1974?
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How much was Chrysler bailed out for in 1980?
$1.3 billion
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When was WIN introduced?
1973 by Ford, which was an attempted policy of voluntary restraint by businesses and individuals
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What was the Public Works Act of 1977?
What Carter thought would've been a stimulus package. It included a $4b works programme and an enlargement of other social policies. By 1980, the programme supported 21m on welfare (expansion of means tested food stamps programme)
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When and What was the National Energy Plan?
Introduced in 1977, it outlined the deregulation of natural gas prices, but it was not until October 1978 that congress passed an act implementing this proposal.
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How much did US energy consumption drop by between 1979 and 1983?
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What was the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978?
Abolished the Civil Aero nautics Board in a bid to create greater competition in the airline industry,
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What had happened to unemployment by 1978?
It had dropped to 5%
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What had happened by 1980?
Unemployment was at 7.5%, mortgage rates at 15%, interest rates at 20% and inflation at 12-13%.
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What did Pete Rozelle do?
Was the commissioner of the NFL and in 1962 he negotiated a $9.3m television deal with CBS.
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What was the Superbowl XIV (1973)
It saw audiences of 53m and advertising costs during the match was $88,000 for a 30 second slot
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What had happened by 1980?
Advertising revenue was $220,000 for a 30 second slot. Audience had risen to 76m and the average annual wage had increased from $23k in 1970 to $75k in 1980
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What film dominated the Oscars in 1975?
One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest, a black comedy set in a mental hospital
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When was the Deer Hunter released and what was it about?
Released in 1977 it was about the war in vietnam
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What happened to daily newspaper circulation between 1973 and 1980?
It increased from 26m to 32m
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What was the Roe V Wade case?
Legalised abortion in 1973, which meant abortion rates went up to 1.7m in 1977
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Who opposed the Roe V Wade?
The Right to Life organisation- got congress to only allow abortions if the womans life was at risk.
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What women's rights groups emerged during the 1970s?
NOW, Womens Liberation Front and the Red Stockings
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How women were in work in 1980?
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What Acts were passed for workers rights between 1973 and 1980?
1972 Rehabilitation Act- rights of disabled people were protected.
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What was the Native American population in 1980?
1.4 million
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What was formed in 1968?
American Indian Movement
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What did AIM do?
Captured naitonal attention when occupying buildings such as Alcatraz (1969) and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (1972).
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What happened at wounded knee in 1973?
A major confrontation between police and indian americans. 2 people were killed and 12 were wounded
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What was the result of 'Red Power'?
The Indian Self-Determination Act 1974. Allowed tribes to assume administrative responsibility for federally funded programmes run by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and by the Indian Health Service
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How many firms had affirmative action embraced by 1972?
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What % of black American families achieved a middle-class lifestyle during the 1970s?
35% to 45%
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What was the Bakke case of 1978?
Bakke applied for the University of California, but was rejected due to affirmative action, even though he got better grades. It was rejected and affirmative action was witheld
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What did the Fullilove v Klutznik case of 1980 do?
Declared that 10 percent of federal jobs should be allocated to ethnic minorities
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What happened to Black Family income in comparison to white family incomed?
It fell from 60% of a white families income to 58%
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What was Reagan's programme for Economic recovery?
It aimed to achieve economic growth through improvements in productivity
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What did Reagan do to taxes and public spending?
Major tax cuts and a reduction of $35b in public spending
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What did the 1981 Omnibus Reconciliation Act and Economic Recovery Tax Act do?
Cut spending on over 300 programmes, resulting in $963b over the period 1981-87. Income tax was also cut by 25%
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How much of the population was considered poor by 1982?
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What was the amount of GDP growth between 1981 and 1984?
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How much was the Department of Housing and Urban Development cut by?
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How many states, by 1987, had introduced work based benefit payments?
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How much of its workforce did the Office of Surface Mining lose between 1981 and 1982?
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What was the PATCO strike?
11,300 air workers went on strike. Reagan demanded all air traffic controllers went back to work within 48 hours or they'd get sacked
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How much did Federal spending increase to and from?
$321b to more than a trillion dollars
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How much did defence spending increase to and from?
$171bn to $242bn by 1986
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How did the number of federal employees change by?
2.9m to 3.1m
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How much budget deficit was there?
Over $100bn
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How much trade deficit was there?
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What was the aim of the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985?
To reduce federal budget deficit until it disappeared by 1991. Was no where near being complete in 1989
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How much US debt was there by 1988?
$2.7 trillion
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How much had the federal deficit risen to by 1992?
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How much had the Federal Bailout Bill for savings and loan industries increased to?
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How much was income tax raised to? (Bush)
28% to 31%
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How much did Bush cut military and domestic expenditure by?
$492 billion
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What did the Federal Reserve Board lower interest rates to in 1989?
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What percentage of Americans prayed every day in 1979?
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Who was Jerry Falwell?
A religious right member who believed in the literal truth of the bible. He had the radio show 'The Old Gospel Hour' which had an audience of 1.5m
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Who was Pat Robertson?
He ran the Christian broadcasting network
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Who was Jim Bakker?
He founded the 'Praise the lord Ministry' in 1974.
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How much did the top 8 televangelists in 1980 make from programmes and what audience did they reach?
They made $310m and reached an audience of 20m
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Who was Phyllis Schlaffy?
Catholic republican. 'Sweetheart of the Silent Majority'. National conference of bishops created the National Right to Life Committee which, by 1980, had 11 million supporters
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How many members did 'Concerned Women for America' have by the mid 1980s?
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What was their impact (Phyllis Schlaffy and CWFA)?
They prevented by 1972
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What did Nancy Reagan do with the 'Just say no campaign'?
Travelled 250,000 miles, visited 65 cities in 33 states. Had a meeting with 18 wives of world leaders whom attended the First Ladies Conference on Drug abuse. Cocaine used dropped by 6.2% to 4.3% in 1987
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What was the bridge in wealth like between 1980 and 1988?
The top 20% saw their share of national income go up to 44%, the bottom 60% saw theirs drop.
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What was the Reduce Federal spending bill?
It would've set up the Presidential advisory committee on Federalism and the coordinating task force on federalism- but was rejected by the democrats who controlled the house of representatives.
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What did the Clean Air Act 1990 and Energy Act 1992 do?
They wanted to achieve greater energy conservation and support for renewable energy.
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When was the breakthrough IBM 5150 personal computer released?
1981 at a cost of $1,600
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When did the atari go on sale?
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When did Nintendo appear?
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What was the first cd player and when was it released?
Phillips CD100 was launched in 1982 with a cost of $1000
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What was the first CD album to sell one million albums?
Brothers in Arms by Dire Straights
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How many Walkmans had been sold by 1989?
50 million
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How much did the price of a vhs vc change between 1975 and 1987?
$2,000 to $250
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When was satellite television common for US citizens?
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When was CNN set up?
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How much did the cable television industry spend laying cables across the USA between 1984 to 1992?
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What impact did MTV have?
It showed popular music videos and helped create stars of singers such as Madonna.
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How much was Thriller significant?
Budget of $500,000 and the rights to show the MV were sold to MTV for $200,000
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How many people had died due to AIDs in 1989?
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When did Reagan state that AID's was 'public enemy number 1'
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When did 500,000 people go on a parade in NYC about better funding about AIDs
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What did 'The Day After' portray?
A nuclear holocaust and included very graphic scenes. Lead to Reagan trying to make a space borne missiles which would prevent any chance of nuclear war.
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When was Andrew Young elected as Mayor of Atlanta and why was it significant?
1980 and he was a black civil right activist
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When did Harold Wilson become the first black mayor of Chicago?
1983- helped by PUSH and National urban league who got an extra 100,000 voters
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When did Reverend Jackson stand for the democrat candidate for presidency?
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What was controversial about the appointment of a black American supreme court justice Clarence Thomas?
He was a conservative, against affirmative action. He had also been accused of sexual harassment.
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How many black owned businesses were there by 1992?
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Who was the first black female millionaire?
Oprah Winfrey, who with the Oprah Winfrey show had seen success in 140 countries.
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What % of NFL, NBA and MLB players were black?
80% of the NFL, 60% of the NBA and 25% of the MLB
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When did Carl Lewis win 4 gold medals and what in?
At the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. In 100 metres, 200 metres, long jump and 4x100 metres.
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What was significant about Thriller?
The video won 12 grammy's was number one for 37 weeks
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What were some cases of racial tension?
Vincent Chin being brutally beaten to death cause whites thought he was chinese. 4 black youths tried to mug a white guy who shot at them leaving one brain damaged,
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What was the Rodney King Case of 1991-92?
King was stopped by his car by white police and was brutally beaten and was caught on video. The officers were acquitted and this set off a major race riot in which 54 people were killed, 2,400 injured and 17k arrested. 10,000 businesses were destroy
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Rodney King case part two
There was a loss of over 50,000 obs and it cost over a $1bn's worth of damage
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When was the first woman in the US supreme court?
1981- Sandra Day O'Connor
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Why was the 1992 election classed as the 'year of the woman'?
Women won several high profile senate races in California and Illinois. Overall Women returned to congress in high numbers.
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What happened to females out of politics?
The female share of professional jobs increased from 44 to 49%. Share of management jobs increased from 20% to 36%. Half of graduates in 1985 were women.
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What happened to child-birth?
27% took part outside of marriage and 40% of marriages ended in divorce.
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What percentage of the workforce was female by 1990?
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What percentage of new doctors were women?
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What percentage of lawyers were women?
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What percentage of pay did women get compared to men?
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What was the US GDP in 1950?


$284.8 billion

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What was the US GDP in 1960?


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How much consumer credit was there in 1950?


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How much consumer credit was there in 1960?


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