Aerobic respiration

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Where does glycolysis occur?
Cytoplasm of all living cells
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Stage 1 of glycolysis
Glucose (6C) is phosphorlyated (so it has 2 phosphate molecules) - provides activation energy for enzyme reactions
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Stage 2 of glycolysis
Phosphorylated glucose split into triosephosphate (3C) x 2
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Stage 3 of glycolysis
Oxidation of triose phosphate - hydrogen is removed from each triosephosphate and taken up by reduced NAD
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Stage 4 of glycolysis
Triosephosphate is coverted into x2 pyruvate (3C)
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Molecules produced at the end of glycolysis
2 ATP, 2 reduced NAD, 2 pyruvate
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How are the pyruvate molecules transported into the link reaction?
Actively, into the matrix of mitochondria
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2 reactions pyruvate undergoes during the link reaction
Oxidised (hydrogen is accepted by NAD) + acetyl group combines with coenzyme A to produce acetylcoenzyme A
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What kind of molecule is formed from each pyruvate?
CO2
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First stage of krebs cycle
2C acetyle coenzyme A combines with 4C molecule to produce 6C molecule
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Second stage of krebs cycle
6C carbon molecule loses CO2 and H to give 4C molecule and ATP molecule
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Third stage of krebs cycle
4C molecule combines with new acetylecoenzyme A to begin cycle again
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Products of the krebs cycle
Reduced NAD + FAD, 1x ATP, 3 x CO2
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Why is the krebs cycle important?
Breaks down macromolecules into smaller ones, produces hydrogen atoms for ETC, regenerates 4C molecule that combines with acetylcoenzyme A, source of intermediate compounds used by cells to maufacture substances
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What is the main aim of the electron transport chain?
Synthesis ATP
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How does the electron transport chain work
H atoms combine with NAD and FAD attached to cristae --> reduced NAD & FAD donate electrons --> protons released from H atoms --> electrons pass along chain --> oxidation-reduction --> lose energy as they pass down --> energy is used to make ATP
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Explain chemiosmosis
H+ ions pass through protein channels in inner membrane back into mitrochondrial matrix --> ATP synthase associated with channels --> electrical potential energy synthesises ATP
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Stage 1 of glycolysis

Back

Glucose (6C) is phosphorlyated (so it has 2 phosphate molecules) - provides activation energy for enzyme reactions

Card 3

Front

Stage 2 of glycolysis

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Stage 3 of glycolysis

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Stage 4 of glycolysis

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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