Adolescence

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When does adolescence start and end?
from 9 years to 18 years old.
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During which life stage do individuals achieve their full height?
Adolescence.
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During which life stage do individuals become specialised in their skills e.g judo, tennis, ballet etc.
Adolescence.
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During adolescence, when does the main physical changes occur
During puberty.
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State what is meant by puberty.
It is the period when secondary sexual characteristics (sexual traits) develop and individuals become capable of sexual reproduction.
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When does puberty occur for girls?
When they are aged 11-12.
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When does puberty occur for boys?
When they are aged between 13-15.
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During puberty, which system in the body becomes functional?
The reproductive system.
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Which hormone in the body triggers puberty in girls and boys?
Girls = oestrogen and boys = testosterone
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How does a girls body change during puberty?
Girls begin to have wider hips and chest, which gives them a narrow waist and an hourglass shape.
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How does a boys body change during puberty?
Boys begin to get broader shoulders, giving their torso a triangular shape.
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State what is meant by primary sexual characteristics.
Sexual characteristics that have been fixed since birth.
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State what is meant by secondary sexual characteristics.
Sexual characteristics that develop or change during the process of puberty.
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State a few examples of primary sexual characteristics of males.
Penis, testicles, scrotum.
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State a few examples of primary sexual characteristics of females.
Vagina, uterus, ovaries
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State a few examples of secondary sexual characteristics of males.
Pubic hair, sperm production begins, armpit hair, facial hair, shoulders broaden, muscles develop, voice breaks, chest hair, chest hair, erections, body hair.
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State a few examples of secondary sexual characteristics of females.
Pubic hair, ovulation begins (egg production), breasts develop, voice pitch drops, pelvis widens, menstruation begins, armpit hair, leg/arm hair increases slightly, fat deposits give curvy shape
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At what age would individuals become fully grown and fully sexually developed?
17 to 18.
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Which hormone triggers sexual development?
Gonadotrophic hormones. These are released from the testes in boys and ovaries in girls.
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What is the function of oestrogen and progesterone in girls?
It stimulates the menstrual cycle, production of eggs and the development of other secondary sexual characteristics.
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What is the function of testosterone in boys?
It's responsible for the growth spurt, pubic hair, facial changes, sperm production and the other secondary sexual characteristics.
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State what is meant by when adolescents think hypothetically.
This is when adolescents are able to think about possible situations that are available to them.
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How do adolescents plan ahead?
Adolescents can think about what things they will need e.g. for a holiday
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State what is meant by meta-cognition.
When individuals have an understanding of their own thought process (especially adolescents).
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State what is meant by second-order thinking
When individuals are able to hold lots of information at once (especially adolescents)
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State what is meant by decentring.
Adolescents are able to see things from other people's perspective.
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What does abstract thinking involve?
Thinking hypothetically, planning ahead, meta-cognition, second-order thinking, asking rhetorical questions, decentring.
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How do adolescents improve their language development?
As they are taught in schools, social gatherings, reading, the internet, television and other situations.
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What other factors can contribute to an adolescents intellectual development?
Education and jobs.
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How do adolescents develop emotionally and socially?
It involves making new friendships or relationships with their boyfriend/girlfriend.
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How does peer pressure influence an adolescents emotional and social development?
Adolescents may feel compelled to do things that they are't comfortable with, such as, smoking, drinking, having sex, taking drugs, or committing crime etc.
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How is a teenagers self concept like at this life-stage?
It is fragile, and adolescents want to feel accepted by their peers. They are usually self conscious about their appearance or physical development.
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What pressure is involved in adolescence (apart from exam stress)
There is increasing pressure to get into sexual relationships from peers.
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What are common issues that adolescents and their parents fall out on?
Dress sense, curfews, dietary choices, smoking/alcohol/drugs, social activities, money, friendship groups or gangs, sexual relationships, education, morals and values, tidiness and housework, career choices.
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At what life-stage, do individuals gain independence?
Adolescence
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

During which life stage do individuals achieve their full height?

Back

Adolescence.

Card 3

Front

During which life stage do individuals become specialised in their skills e.g judo, tennis, ballet etc.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

During adolescence, when does the main physical changes occur

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

State what is meant by puberty.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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