Additional Biology Revision Cards

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  • Created on: 23-05-15 23:44
Describe how carbon dioxide enters the leaf
By diffusion (1) from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (1).
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What is meant by the 95th percentile, in terms of a graph showing height and age.
95% will be smaller (1) at that age (1).
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Explain why the concentration of lactic acid changes at high runnng speeds?
More lactic acid is produced (as exercise increases) (1) bc your muscles are contracting harder (1). Your AEROBIC respiration will be at its max, as muscles are not getting enough oxygen, so ANAEROBIC respiration occurs (producing lactic acid) (1).
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Explain why the concentration of lactic acid in the blood changes whilst resting
You concentration of lactic acid decreases (1), the lactic acid is broken down (1) using ocxygen (1) and it's turned into carbon dioxide + water (1). This happens bc you have an oxygen debt whilst exercising (1).
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Suggest FOUR reasons why as the years increase the number of species of weeds resistant to herbicide might increase.
Increased use of herbicide-resistant crops (1). Increase use (conentration / time) of herbicide (1). Cross pollination where there is a transfer of genes into weeds from other plants (1). Mutation (1)
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State the TWO roles of bile in digestion.
1. Neutralisation of stomach acid. 2. Emulsification
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Explain how the structure of the villia allows efficient absorption in the small intestine.
1. It has MICROVILLI and a LARGE SURFACE AREA which enables fast / more diffusion. 2. It is ONE CELL THICK which gives a small diffusion gradient. 3. It is a LARGE NETWORK OF CAPILLARIES which enables it to maintain its diffusion gradient.
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Describe how a section of DNA determines the structure of a protein.
A gene is a small section of DNA that codes for a specific protein. The order of the bases in a gene determines the order of amino acids. Three bases (called a triplet) codes for a particular amino acid. Several amino acids make up a protein.
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Explain how the Human Genome Project has contributed to advances in medicine.
Every base sequence on the human chromosome has been identfied (1) Faulty genes have been identified (1). People can be tested for a genetic disorder (1). Personalised medication can be given (1).
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What type of vessel transports WATER and MINERAL IONS from the root to the rest of the plant?
Xylem tubes.
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Strawberry plants grow runners + new strawberry plants develop along the runners. The new plants are genetically identical to the parent plant. Farmer cut the runners + sell the new plants. Suggest adv's of producing new strawberry plants in this way
1. Best characteristics inherited. 2. Easier to generate new plants. 3. Quicker to produce new plants. 4. Cheap bc there is no need to buy new plants / seeds.
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Suggest four reasons why the probiotic bacteria in chocolate might survive longer in the stomach then the probiotic bacteria in milk.
1. Chocolate is digested slower. 2. There may be a different type of probiotic bacteria in chocolate. 3. There may be more probiotic bacteria in the chocolate (initially). 4. There may be more sugar / nutrients in the chocolate.
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Explain why it is important that the cardiac output [CO is the volume of blood pumped by the heart] of an athlete increases during exercise.
During exercise your muscles contract faster (1) and they need more energy. Oxygen is delievered to your muscles faster (1). Carbon dioxide is removed faster (1).
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Describe the risks associated with cloning mammals.
1. Cloned mammals tend to be larger at birth. 2. The embryo could be rejected. 3. Cloned animals tend to have in early death. 4. Cloning narrows the gene pool. 5. Clones may carry genetic disorders. 6. Clones are susceptible to the same diseases.
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Describe how the structure of a red blood cell is related to its function.
1. It is a BIOCONCAVE SHAPE to give a large surface area (to increase oxygen uptake). 2. It has NO NUCLEUS to provide more room for more haemoglobin to carry oxygen. 3. It has a THIN MEMBRANE so there is a short distance for diffusion.
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Describe how the structure of a red blood cell is related to its function.
4. It is FLEXIBLE / SMALL so it can get through the capillaries, 5, It CONTAINS HAEMOGLOBIN to bind oxygen.
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Describe the function of platelets. (IT DOES 3 THINGS)
1. Clotting. 2. Stop bleeding. 3. Prevent infection / entry of microbes.
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How is a leaf adapted to photosynthesis?
1. LARGE SURFACE AREA - leaves are broad so there's a large surface area exposed to light which allows more light to be absorbed. 2. CHLOROPHYLL - absorbs light for photosynthesis. 3. STOMATA - allows gases to diffuse in + out.
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How else is a leaf adapted to photosynthesis?
4. THIN - short distance for carbon dioxide to diffuse. 5. NETWORK OF VEINS - support the leaf + transport water + carbohydrases.
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Describe the role of the a) Mouth in the digestive system.
a) Mouth - the salivary glands produce amylase enzyme in the saliva, which breaks down starch. Chewing breaks up food + mixes it with enzymes to start digestion.
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Describe the role of the b) Oesophagus in the digestive system.
b) Oesophagus - a tube that takes food from the mouth to the stomach. It's lined with muscles that contract to help the bolus move along by perilstalsis.
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Describe the role of the stomach in the digestive system.
c) Stomach - it produces protease enzyme, pepsin. It produces HCl(aq) to: kill bacteria, give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work (pH 2 - acidic). break down food + bacteria for chemical digestion.
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What happens to the stomach contents in the stomach during the digestion.
Stomach contents are mixed by churning of muscular wall.
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Describe the role of the d) Liver in the digestive system.
d) Liver - produces bile which helps with digestion bc bile neutralises stomach acid + emulsifies fats. The liver converts food molecules absorbed from small intestine into other molecules.
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Describe the role of the e) Gall Bladder in the digestive system.
e) Gall Bladder - this stores the bile before its released into the small intestine.
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Describe the role of the: f) Pancreas in the digestive system.
f) Pancreas - produces protease, amylase + lipase enzymes. It releases these into the small intestine.
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Describe the role of the: g) Small Intestine in the digestive system.
g) Small Intestine - it produces all 3 enzymes to complete digestion. This is also where 'food' + nutrients are absorbed out of the digestive system into the blood. Water is absorbed from digested food. It's very long + it's covered with villi.
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Describe the roles of the: h) Large Intestine i) Rectum j) Anus in the digestive.
h) Large Intestine - where excess water is absorbed from food. i) Rectum - where faeces are stored before they leave through the ****. j) Anus - to excrete waste.
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What does lipase a) Digest b) Digest their product into?
a) Fat b) Fatty acids + glycerol.
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What does proteses a) Digest b) Digest their product into? c) Give an example of a protease.
a) Proteins b) Into amino acids c) Pepsin.
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What does carbohydrases a) Digest b) Digest their product into? c) Give an example of a carbohydrases.
a) Starch b) Into sugars c) Amylase
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What is DNA made of?
DNA is made of 2 strands coiled to gorm a double helix. The 2 strands are linked by complementary bases held together by weak hydrogen bonds.
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What does RNA have instead of thymine?
RNA has uracil instead of thymine.
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What do plant and animal cells both have in common? (And state what they do.)
1. NUCLEUS - contains DNA that contols the cell. 2. CYTOPLASM - where chemical reactions take place. 3. CELL MEMBRANE - holds the cell together + controls what goes in + out. 4. MITOCHONDRIA - where most reactions for respiration occurs.
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What do bacterial cells contain?
1. CHROMOSOMAL DNA - controls the cell's activities + replication. It contains most genetic material. 2. PLASMID DNA - small loops of DNA that carry extra info + aren't part of the chromosome.
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What else do bacterial cells contain?
3. FLAGELLA - long, hair-like structure that rotates to make the bacterium move. 4. CELL WALL - provides support but is more flexible than a plant. It is not mae of cellulose.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is meant by the 95th percentile, in terms of a graph showing height and age.

Back

95% will be smaller (1) at that age (1).

Card 3

Front

Explain why the concentration of lactic acid changes at high runnng speeds?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain why the concentration of lactic acid in the blood changes whilst resting

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Suggest FOUR reasons why as the years increase the number of species of weeds resistant to herbicide might increase.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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