Additional Science: Key terms

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  • Created by: Jordan64
  • Created on: 27-04-16 13:08
Alkali
Chemical opposite of acid. When dissolved in water, it's solution has a pH number of more than 7. Alkalis are proton OH- donors
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Acid
A sour sustance that can attack metal, clothing or skin. The chemical opposite of an alkali. When dissolved in water, its solution has a pH less than 7. Acids are proton (H+ ion) donors
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Activation energy
The minimum energy needed to start off a reaction
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Anhydrous
A substance that does not contain water
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Aqueous solution
The mixture made by adding a soluble substance to water.
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Atomic number
The number of protons (which equals number of electrons) in an atom. It is sometimes called the proton number. Placed above element in periodic table
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Attract
to cause to move nearer
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Base
The oxide, hydroxide or carbonate of a metal that will react with an acid, forming a salt as one of the products. (If a base dissolves in water it is called an alkali). Bases are proton (H+ ion) acceptors
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Catalyst
Substance that speeds up a chemical reaction. At the end of the reaction the catalyst remains chemically unchanged
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Chromotography
The process whereby small amounts of dissolved substances are separated by running a solvent along a material such as absorbent paper
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Collision theory
Explanation of chemical reactions in terms of reacting particles colliding with sufficient energy for a reaction to take place
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Covalent bonding
Attraction between two atoms that share one or more pairs of electrons
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Delocalised electron
Bonding electron that is no longer associated with any one particular atom.
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Dot and cross diagram
A drawing to show the arrangement of the outer shell electrons only of the atoms or ions in a substance.
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Electrolysis
Process that uses energy to break down ionic compounds into elements.
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Electrolyte
A liquid, containing free-moving ions that is boroken down by electricity in the process of electrolysis
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Electron
Tiny particle with a negative charge. Electrons orbit the nucleus of atoms or ions
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Empirical formula
Simplest ratio of elements in a compound
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Endothermic
Reaction that takes in energy from the surroundings
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Exothermic
Reaction that gives out energy to the surroundings.
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Fullerine
Form of the element carbon that can form a large cage-like structure, based on hexagonal rings of carbon atoms.
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Gas chromatography
Process of separating the components in a mixture by passing the vapours through a column and detecting them as they leave the column at different times
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Giant covalent structure/Macromolecule
A huge 3D network of atoms or ions (e.g the giant ionic lattice in sodium chloride).
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Giant lattice/structure
Huge 3D network of atoms or ions
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Gradient
Change of the quantity plotted on the y-axis divided by the change of the quantity plotted on the x-axis
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Hydrated
Substance that contains water in its crystals (hydrated copper sulfate)
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Inert
Unreactive
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Insoluble molecules
Molecules that will not dissolve in a particular solvent such as water.
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Insulating
Reducing energy transfer by heating
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Intermolecular force
Attraction between the individual molecules in a covalently bonded substance
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Ion
Charge particle produced by the loss or gain of electrons
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Ionic bonding
The electrostatic force of attraction between positively and negatively charged ions
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Ionisation
Any process in which atoms become charged
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Isotope
Atom that has the same number of protons but different number of neutrons (it has the same atomic number but different mass number)
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Mass number
Protons + neutrons
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Mass spectrometer
Machine that can be used to analyse small amounts of a substance to identify it and to find it's relative molecular mass
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Mole
Amount of substance in the relative atomic or formula mass of a sustance in grams.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A sour sustance that can attack metal, clothing or skin. The chemical opposite of an alkali. When dissolved in water, its solution has a pH less than 7. Acids are proton (H+ ion) donors

Back

Acid

Card 3

Front

The minimum energy needed to start off a reaction

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A substance that does not contain water

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The mixture made by adding a soluble substance to water.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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