Additional Biology - Topic 3 Organ Systems

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Peristalsis
involves longitudal and circular muscles. it has muscular tissue all the way down the digestive system. longitudinal muscles are down the length of the gut. circular muscles run in circles around the gut, contractions push the food along the gut.
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Large Intestine
where excess water is absorbed from food
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Small Intestine
produces amylase, lipase, protease enzymes to complete digestion. this is where food is absorbed out the digestive system and into the body.
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Oesophagus
the tube that takes food from the mouth into the stomach. It is lined with muscles that contract to help bolus move down the peristalsis
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Plasma
a yellow liquid that keeps the blood fluid, it transports everything in the blood: red and white blood cells, amino acids, carbon dioxide, hormones, urea, antibodies, antitoxins.
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Villi
inside the small intestine, it is covered up with millions of tiny projections called villi. villi has a large surface area so digested food can be absorbed more quickly, a single layer of surface cells to diffuse digested food over a short distance
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White Blood Cells
change shape to gobble up any unwelcome microorganisms, they produce antibodies to fight microorganisms as well as antitoxins to neutralise any toxins produced. a low white blood cell count can increase risk of infection.
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Probiotics
contain 'good bacteria', live bacteria e.g. bifidiobacteria. they are added to yogurts, soya milk and dietry supplements e.g. capsuples. they may keep your digestive system healthy
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Pancreas
produces amylase, lipase and protease enzymes and releases it into the small intestine.
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Capillaries
arteries branch into capillaries, they are really tiny. they carry blood really close to every cell in the body to exchange substances, have permeable walls to diffuse substances in and out. they supply food and oxygen to take away waste
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Bile
Bile is stored in gall bladder, produced in the liver before it is released into the small intestine. it neutralises stomach acid and emulsifies fats. the hydraulic acid in the stomach makes PH too acidic for enzymes to work, bile is alkaline.
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Veins
veins carry blood back to the heart, capillaries eventually join up to form veins. they carry blood under low pressure so walls dont have to as thick as artery walls. they have bigger lumen than arteries to help blood flow, valves to help blood flow
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

where excess water is absorbed from food

Back

Large Intestine

Card 3

Front

produces amylase, lipase, protease enzymes to complete digestion. this is where food is absorbed out the digestive system and into the body.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the tube that takes food from the mouth into the stomach. It is lined with muscles that contract to help bolus move down the peristalsis

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

a yellow liquid that keeps the blood fluid, it transports everything in the blood: red and white blood cells, amino acids, carbon dioxide, hormones, urea, antibodies, antitoxins.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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