Additional biology

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What are found in an animal cell?
Cell membrane, Nucleus, cytoplasm, Mitrochondria and Ribosomes
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What is found in plant or algae cell?
Cell membrane, Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Mitrochondria, Ribosomes, Cell wall, Central vacuole and Chloroplasts
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Bacterial cell
Cell membrane, cell wall and genes form a loop( NO NUCLEUS)
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Yeast cell
Cytoplasm, Cell membrane, cell wall and Nucleus
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Specialised cells
MUSCLE CELLS- contain fibres that contract so a muscle can get shorter and move parts of the body SPERM CELLS- has a tail to swim to the egg for fertilisation NERVE CELL- long fibre for conducting electrical impulses around body
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Define Diffusion
Spreading out of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration
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What subsubstances use diffusion
glucose, oxygen, carbon dioxide cross cell membranes by diffuison
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What net movement?
sum of movement of particles. In diffusion the net movement is from the area of high concentration to the area of lower concentration
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Order of the organ system
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
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Tissues (nerve and epithelial)
NERVE- carries electrical impulses through long fibres EPITHELIAL- covers surface(skin) make continuous surface
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Tissues (Skeletal and muscle)
SKELETAL- supports and protects body. includes bone cells that form hard bone MUSCLE- help body to move. Made of muscle cell that can contract
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Where is Glandular tissue found, and what does it do?
found in glands(pancreas and salivary) they secrete substances (hormones and enzymes)
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Describe how tissues work in the digestive system?
GLANDULAR in stomach secretes enzymes that break down food. MUSCULAR in stomach wall contacts to churn food(mix with enzymes) EPITHELIAL lines the stomach and protects other tissues
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Name 3 organ systems
digestion, respiratory and excretory systems
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Describe what happens in digestive system
SALIVARY- produces digestive juices STOMACH- some digestion takes place LIVER- produces bile PANCREAS- gland thaqt produces digestive juices SMALL INTESTINE digestion complete, absorption of soluable food LARGE INTESTINE-water absorbed, faeces
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Why do enzymes function well?
Stomach produces acid and the liver produces alkaline bile. These fluids regulate the acidity and alkalinity inside the gut
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Name 3 plant organs
leaf, stem and root
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plant tissue and function
EPIDERMAL- covers surface of leaf MESOPHYLL( upper part of leaf)- carries out photosynthesis XYLEM and PHLOEM- transport substances around the plant
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What is photosynthesis
A Process where plants make their own food
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word equation of photosynthesis
Carbon dioxide + water -( light energy, absorbed by chorophyll) glucose + oxygen
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What is the energy transer during photosynthesis
light enery to chemical energy stored in the sugars produced
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Name 5 uses for glucose in plants and algae
1) Converted ti fat or oil for storage 2) converted to cellulose to strengthen walls 3)broken down to release energy in respiration 4) converted to protein 5) converted to insoluble starch for storage
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Limiting factors (that affect photosynthesis)
Shortage of light, Low temperature, shortage of carbon dioxide
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Limiting factors in greenhouses( e.g. tomatoes)
changed by: keeping lights on when dark, heating the air when cold, adding carbon dioxide to the air ... so plants photosynthesise faster... produce a greater crop yield...plant grower earns more money selling the crop
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Define distribution of species
how the individuals of that species are spread out within an area
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Physical factors that affect organisms (5)
1) temperature 2) amount of light 3)availibility of oxygen 4)availibility of carbon dioxide 5) availibilityof nutrients
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How can temperature affect organisms
too hot or cold can kill, adaptations need to survive extreme heat or cold
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How can amopunt of light affect organisms
green algae need light for photosynthesis
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How can availibility of water affect organisms
few organsims survive without water
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How can availibility of carbon dioxide affect organisms
carbon dioxide need for photosynthesis
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How can availibility of oxygen affect organisms
needed for respiration and few organisms survive in low oxygen
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How can availibility of nutrients affect organisms
Lack of nutrients can limit growth
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Sampling organisms ( quadrats)
DISTRIBUTION-count number of individual organisms in quadrat, ABUNDANCE- estimate percentage of quadrat covered, measure environmental factors in same area, repeat the quadtrat sampling and measurement of factor, compare quadrat and change in environ
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How do you get valid results when sampling
take the sample randomly. take several repeats and calculate mean
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Sampling organsims (transects)
used between two neighbouring areas- 1mx1m quadrats placed at regular intervals along transect and a transect line
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What else is recorded at each quadrat position
physical factors -temperature, light intensity, trampling). It is easier to link a change in distribution with a change in a physical factor
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4 examples of proteins
1) structual proteins( in muscles) 2) hormones 3) antibodies 4) ENZYMES (biological catalysts)
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What is a catalyst?
changes the rate of the reaction (increasing). Enzymes help reactions in the body work faster
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Why is the shape of an enzyme important?
If the shape changes, it cannot work as well as a catalyst so the enzymes DENATURES
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What changes the shape of an enzyme?
High temperature and unsuitable PH
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is found in plant or algae cell?


Cell membrane, Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Mitrochondria, Ribosomes, Cell wall, Central vacuole and Chloroplasts

Card 3


Bacterial cell


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Yeast cell


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Specialised cells


Preview of the front of card 5
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