additional biology

Which type of microscope has the largest magnification?
Electron microscope
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What does a bacterial cell have that a animal cell does not?
Plasmids, flagellum, cell wall, circular loop of DNA and no nucleus.
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Define the term "gene"
A section of DNA that codes for a specific protein.
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Describe the structure of a DNA molecule.
Double helix- two strands held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases.
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Which scientists cracked the gene code?
Watson and Crick
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How did Watson and Crick use others work to help them?
Rosalins and franklins x ray photographs.
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What was the purpose of the human genome project?
To sequence all of the bases in the human genome.
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What is a plasmid?
A circular loop of DNA
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What is meant be genetic engineering?
Altering the DNA of an organism by inserting DNA from another organism into its genome.
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what are used to cut the DNA and stck it into a genome of a new organism?
enzymes
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Define fertilisation
Haploid gemates join to form diploid zygote
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Define cloning
The production of genteically identical individual
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What is the main source of stem cell research?
Discarded embryos from fertility treatment.
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What provides the code for the structure of a protein?
The sequence of bases on the DNA
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What is a mutation?
A change in the sequence of bases in the DNA
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What are the units that make up proteins?
Amino acids
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What is an enzyme?
A biological catalyst
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Where in the enzyme does the reaction take place?
Active site
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Define diffusion
The movement of a substrate from high to low concentration
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Describe 3 adaptations of a leaf for photosynthesis
Large surface area, contains chlorophyllto absorb light and stomata for gas exchange
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State the 3 limiting factors for photosynthesis
Light in tensity, CO2 concentration and temperature
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Define transpiration
The movement of water through a plant
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Describe how mineral ions are absorbed into the roots.
By active transport using energy from the soil to cells in the roots.
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Describe how water enters the root and then moves through the plant.
By osmosis from the soil to the cell of the root then up the xylem.
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What is the function of the phloem?
To transport glucose up and down the plant
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Define osmosis
The movement of water from high to low concentration across a semi permeable membrane
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How are root hair cells adapted to their function?
Large surface area to increase water absorption
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Describe how pentadactyl limb provides evidence of evolution
Suggests all vertebrates evolved from one common ancestor as there similarities between bone structure.
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What 3 things must a cell do for an organism to grow?
Devide, elongate and differentiate.
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How is backflow of blood prevented in the heart?
Valves
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How is the structure of the left ventricle different from the right ventricle?
Thicker wall
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Describe the function of the artery
carries blood away from the heart
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Describe the function of the vein
carries blood to the heart
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Describe the function of the capillary
exchange substances between tissues
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How does the musclular wall in the alimentary canal aid movement of food?
Pushes food along the digestive system by muscular contraction
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State the two functions of bile
neutralises stomach acid and emulsifying fats
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How and why is the villi adapted?
Large surface area, good blood supply and one layer of cells thick for efficient absorption
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does a bacterial cell have that a animal cell does not?

Back

Plasmids, flagellum, cell wall, circular loop of DNA and no nucleus.

Card 3

Front

Define the term "gene"

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the structure of a DNA molecule.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which scientists cracked the gene code?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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