Addictive Addictions

  • Created by: Ciara26
  • Created on: 21-04-16 09:54
What are the two explanations that come under the biological explanation?
1) Biochemical Explanation 2) Genetic Explanation
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What does the biochemical explanation say inition is caused by?
Neurotransmitter imbalance e.g dopamine receptors are blocked (could be due to prenatal smoking)
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How are addictions maintained, according to the biochemical explanation?
1) The pituitary adrenal response (underactive or impaired) OR 2) Addict receives a short lived pleasure response from the MDP which produces dopamine. The NEED to re-experience this feeling leads to repetitive behaviour
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Explain tolerance
Over time a person will need more/higher stakes/cigarettes in order to feel the same amount of pleasure they did initially - they have developed tolerance (helps maintenance)
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Why do people relapse, according to the biochemical explanation?
1) Boredom avoidance 2) Withdrawal Symptoms (prevention of withdrawal symptoms can also encourage maintenance)
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How does Zuckerman support biochemical maintenance?
Zuckerman found that there are INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES in the need for optimal amounts of stimulation desired
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How does Paris support Zuckerman and the idea of tolerance?
Paris found higher levels of cortisol in saliva of recreational gamblers compared to pathological gamblers, even though they watched the same video of gambling. This suggests that addicted gamblers need higher stakes/risks in order to develop the
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Paris continued...
same cortisol response
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What does the genetic explanation say initiation is caused by?
People inherit a genetic tendency to engage in an addictive behaviour in the presence of a stressor - they are GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED
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How are addictions maintained, according to the genetic explanation?
Some people have genes to allow a greater tolerance to the MDP and are more sensation seeking
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Why do people relapse, according to the genetic explanation?
1) Boredom avoidance 2) Partially influenced by a person's genetic tendency to be receptive to certain behaviours
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How does Vink show weakness in the idea that initiation is caused by genetic factors?
Vink studied 1572 dutch twin pairs and found that on 44% of initiation was due to genetic factors whereas 56% was due to environmental factors
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How do Thorgeirsson et al support the genetic explanation?
They identified a specific gene on chromosome 15 that influenced the number of cigarettes a person had a day and their dependence on them
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Evaluation of Biological Model of Addiction
1) Supporting Research. 2) Can be seen as REDUCTIONIST: tries to reduce down to one cause, neglects other factors eg social. 3) Does't blame the person - they can't help it. 4) Support from therapies: if they work, model must be correct
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What does the cognitive explanation say initiation is caused by?
Gelkopf et al say that initiation is due to SELF MEDICATION. Ppl initially use different forms of pathological behaviour because they perceive them as helping a particular problem eg smoking and alcohol can relieve anxiety and/or stress
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How do Kassel et al support the initiation idea of the cognitive model?
Kassel et al reported that adolescent smokers commonly report smoking when experiencing negative moods. RM: issues with self-report (reliability) & age bias
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How are addictions maintained, according to the cognitive explanation?
An addiction is maintained due to a person's irrational beliefs. The person may have an irrational perspective of the behaviour and therefore may minimise the costs and maximise the benefits. GAMBLER'S FALLACY is and example
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What is gambler's fallacy?
Gambler's fallacy (Oei and Gordon) is the belief that what happens next is dependent on what happened before. This is an irrational belief because it is always random.
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What do Oei and Gordon say about the maintenance part of the cognitive explanation?
Cognitive distortions or irrational beliefs play a role in the maintenance of pathological gambling SUPPORTIVE
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What do Brandon et al suggest about the maintenance part of the cognitive explanation?
As an addiction develops, the activity is influenced less by conscious expectations and more by unconscious expectations, including automatic processing
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Why do people relapse, according to the cognitive explanation?
Recall bias, cognitive myopia (short-sightedness HERNSTEIN - don't look at long term effects) and the 'just world' hypothesis - the belief that the person will be rewarded eventually
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What do Blanco et al say relapse is caused by according to the cognitive explanation?
Pathological gamblers often suffer from recall bias
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What did Deuries and Backbier do?
Demonstrated that smoker's perceptions of the pros and cons of smoking and of quitting does affect their quitting behaviour
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Give an evaluation of the Cognitive Model of Addiction
Most research used to support the cognitive model is correlational which doesn't always show cause and effect - there are often other factors involved too. The model argues that some form of distress must precede drug use, gamling etc OR VICE VERSA?
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What are the three aspects of the Learning Model of Addiction?
1) Classical Conditioning 2) Operant Conditioning 3) The Social Learning Theory
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How is addiction maintained according to cc?
The individual ASSOCIATES the addictive behaviour with positive arousal so they continue. Eg: gambling = CS, joy = CR
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How do Franklin et al support the idea that smoking is maintained through cc and oc?
They found that smoking thousands of times a year leads to strong associations between sensory aspects and the reinforcing effects of nicotine
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Why do people relapse according to cc?
If a stimulus ASSOCIATED with the addictive behaviour (eg the smell of smoke, sound of money dropping), the CR may be too hard to resist
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How do Hogarth et al support the idea that smoking is relapsed through cc?
They found that the amount of craving increased significantly when a CS related to smoking was presented to a smoker
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How is addiction maintained according to oc?
The individual will receive +ve or -ve reinforcement when doing the addictive behaviour, increasing behaviour. Eg stress relief (-ve), money (+ve) or removal of withdrawal symptoms (-ve)(can be applied to maintenance too)
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How does B.F. Skinner support the idea that gambling is maintained through oc?
He highlighted that, with gambling, you don't always get financially reinforced every time. You have to get used to losing sometimes. He found that randomness is a powerful reinforcer by varying the ratio of which pigeons were reinforced with food.
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Why do people relapse according to oc?
Stopping (-ve punishment) can cause unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as nausea and headaches which act as +ve reinforcers. The addictive behaviour is restarted to stop them
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How is addiction initiated according to the slt?
Imitation of others (eg models, peers) to fit in or be liked. SOCIAL NORMS, VICARIOUS LEARNING
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How do Mayeux et al support the idea that smoking is initiated through the slt?
They found a +ve CORRELATION between smoking at an age of 16 and boys popularity 2 years later. Causational? Age & gender bias?
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How is addiction maintained according to the slt?
Still imitating others
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Why do people relapse according to the slt?
The individual may have lost contact but got back in touch with old friends who used to smoke and still do. Or they may no longer be able to resist peer pressure from social norms. SELF EFFICACY is low
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How do Lambos et al support the idea that gambling is initiated through the slt? How it is an application?
They found that peers and family of problem gamblers were more likely to approve of gambling. Suggests that family and friends should be reached out to and are a big influence when trying to stop
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What is a weakness of the slt?
Doesn't take other possible pathways into account. How do people with no friends develop an addiction?
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What are the risk factors of addiction?
1) Peers 2) Stress 3) Personality 4) Age 5) The Media
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Why are peers a risk factor in developing an addiction?
Peer pressure is a cited reason as to why adolescents begin smoking or taking drugs (Eiser et al). Smokers tend to befriend smokers and non-smokers befriend non-smokers. Peers play a big part in your life - they're a powerful influence
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How do Abrams and Hogg support the idea of peers as a risk factor?
Their SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY states that people adopt personal norms that reflect the group norms
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Why is stress a risk factor in developing an addiction?
Daily stressors, eg relationship or money problems, can lead to initiation in order to cope (SELF MEDICATION). The addictive behaviour takes away the stress (NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT)
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How do Driessen et al support the idea of stress as a risk factor?
They found that 30% of drug addicts and 15% of alcoholics also had PTSD
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Why is an individual's age a risk factor in developing an addiction?
The influence of peers on smoking and drug use appears to wane in later adolescence. Your social crowd (eg peers) might have a greater impact on behaviour for young adolescents, while the best friend and/or romantic partner plays a greater role later
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How does Shram support the idea of age as a risk factor?
Stated that adolescents are at their most sensitive to the +ve effects of nicotine and are least likely to suffer the -ve consequences. Nicotine esp seems to have a much greater effect in the neural reward mechanisms than in later life. SUPPORTS BIO
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Why is an individual's personality a risk factor in developing an addiction?
Some personality traits are associated with an increased risk of developing addictive behaviour
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What type of personalities are seen as a risk?
1) Novelty seekers: constantly try to engage in thrilling and new experiences 2) Reward Dependence: learn quickliy and repeats behaviour 3) extroverts: chronically under-aroused, boredom avoiders 4) Psychotics 5) Neurotics
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How does Eysenck support the idea of personality as a risk factor?
EYSENCK'S TYPE THEORY: found those who were on the psychoticism and neuroticism scale were more likely to deveolp addictive behaviours. Correlational study (but causational?) on poly drug users using EPQ in london (cultural bias? small sample?)
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Why is the media a risk factor in developing an addiction?
1) Movies/tv can portray -ve role models - ppl who engage in addictive behaviours but don't suffer -ve consequences 2) Advertising: encourages sales/promotes activity. Focuses on winning than odds of losing. Eg National Lottery = normal
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How can the media help recover from/prevent addictions?
1) Movies/tv can portray +ve role models - ppl who have addictions, seek help and quit 2) Posters advertising bans 3) Disturbing images on packaging/health adverts
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What is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour? What are the three factors that influence it?
An individuals decision to engage in a particular activity/behaviour can be directly predicted by their intention to engage in that behaviour. It's influenced by: behavioural att, subjective norms & perceived behavioural control
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What is a behavioural attitude?
A product of personal views/attitudes influenced by the media/peers/experience/subjective norms. The perceived consequences of a certain activity will shape a person's attitude towards the behaviour
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What are subjective norms?
A product of social influence and social norms. They are what the individual thinks other people think
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What is perceived behavioural control?
An individuals views on how much control they have over certain behaviour i.e would they be able to stop if they wanted. More control a person believes they have, the more likely they are to initiate. Depends on SELF EFFICACY: belief in yourself
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Weaknesses of using drugs as a way to treat addictions
1) Most don't treat cause, just symptoms- dependence and relapse are problems. 2) With e-cigarettes, still a lot unkown & nicotine is still harmful. 3) Side effects eg drowsiness, nausea
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Advantages of using drugs to treat addictions
1) Quick and easy to administer 2) Fast acting, unlike psychological therapies which can take several weeks
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What are the psychological therapies used to treat addictions?
1) Exposure/Desensitisation 2) Aversion Therapy 3) Reinforcement of Abstinence 4) CBT 5) Motivational Interviews
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How does Exposure/Desensitisation work?
A form of classical conditioning - aka counter conditioning. The patient is exposed to cues for their specific addiction but is encouraged to resist the addictive behaviour. CR is prevented which makes the CS neutral again. ASSOCIATION=EXTINGUISED
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How does Aversion Therapy work? Provide research evidence and and evaluation point
Form of oc. Individual is given repeated pairings of punishment with the behaviour - positive punishment. LANG & MARLETT used mild electric shocks & rapid smoking to make pps nauseous. Found to be effective. BUT ethical issues?
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How do Higgins et al support reinforcement of abstinence (+ve punishment)? Give evaluation points too.
They paid cocaine addicts not to take cocaine. Found good coherence to the programme up to 6 months. -ve does it address the cause? substitution? -ve what are the long term effects? relapse?
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How does Cognitive Behaviour Therapy work?
Based on idea that add behaviours are maintained by the person's thoughts about the behaviour. Aims to change the thoughts (eg smoking norms & gambler's fallacy) as well as teaching more efficient coping techniques to cope with the circumstances
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How do Waylen et al support the idea of -ve role models in the media?
Reviewed 360 top US box office films between 2001-5. Found significant CORRELATION between no. of films showing smoking and adolescents smoking
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How does Boyd support the idea if +ve role models in the media?
Found that illegal drug use and alcohol abuse is portrayed -veley in 'The Archer's Vet' drama. Showed physical deterioration, sexual degradation, violence, crime & moral deterioration
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How do Chapman & Fitzgerald show the media having a -ve influence
Found that under age smokers reported (self report, social desirability bia?) a preference for heavily advertised brands
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What are some ways to biologically treat addictions?
SSRIs, Dopamine receptor antagonists (reduce reinforcement), Nicotine replacement therapy (patches, gum, e-cigarettes - mimics effect of nicotine)
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How do Hollander et al support the use of SSRIs?
Gamblers treated with these to increase serotonin levels showed significant improvements compared to control group
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How do Ladoucer et al support CBT ?
Randomly allocated 66 pathological gamblers to either CBT or a waiting list. 86% those treated = no longer fulfilled DSM criteria for problem gambling. SMALL SAMPLE SIZE, GENERALISABLE?
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How do motivational interviews work?
They help ppl move around the circle of change until they achieve and maintain abstinence - behaviour isn't linear. Support from Dunn et al who says it helps ppl progress onto more intensive treatments
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What are some public health interventions?
Telephone Services (eg Quitline), Adverts, Education (aims to change theory of planned behaviour)
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How do Stead et al show support for telephone service interventions?
Studied 18,000 pps & found that those who received repeated telephone calls from a counsellor increased their odds of stopping by 50%
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does the biochemical explanation say inition is caused by?


Neurotransmitter imbalance e.g dopamine receptors are blocked (could be due to prenatal smoking)

Card 3


How are addictions maintained, according to the biochemical explanation?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Explain tolerance


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why do people relapse, according to the biochemical explanation?


Preview of the front of card 5
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omg my fave :D

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