Addiction

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Lifecycle of addiction
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BIOLOGICAL MODELS
Genetics and Dopamine
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Genetics
Passed down in families makes people more vulnerable to developing addictions
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Initiation
Predisposed vulnerablity. Gene is more common to those addicted to alcohol
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Maintenence
a variety of drugs such as nicotine in cigarettes have addictive properties (Nicotine - titration model) addicts must maintain a certain level of nicotine in their system) they continue the drug in order to aviod withdrawl syptoms )
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Relapse
Predisposed biological vulnerability makes relapse more likely
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Mc Gue et al
- MZ + DZ twins - male - minnesota - interviewed on alcohol consumption - concordance rates calculated - MZ = 77%, DZ = 54% - Heredity has a huge influence
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Kendler et al
- analysed data from usa - common genetic factor contributed to addiction to alcohol dependency/ drug use
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Evaluation of Genetics
- not 100% results, must be other factors involved - twins used so not very generalisable to the rest of the population
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Dopamine
dopamine activates the reward pathway which produces a euphoria which makes the person continue
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Initiation
- reward pathway activated giving the feeling of pleasure due to the release of dopamine
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Maintenance
- drugs e.g. nicotine and gambling release dopamine, this is an incentive to continue - PFC = decision making is impaired - to much dopamine = desensitisation = increasing doses each time
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Relapse
Dopamine pathways link to other areas of the brain including the memory areas and help make addicts more sensitive to the memories of previous highs
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Robinson + Berridge
- repeated exposure to drugs leads to increasing sesnitivity of the brain to the desirability - can persist when not taking the drug
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Shinohora et al
- raised levels of dopamine + noradrenaline occur in social gambers only when gambling and in anticipation + to paraphernalia of gambling - suggests a biological link
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OVERALL EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL
- ignores nurture - its hard to explain psychological addictions - cant extrapolate - to humans - cant generalise - twins x generalise - reductionist - derterministic + objective + explains drug and smocking addiction
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Learning model into addiction
classical, Operant and SLT
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Classical conditioning
association of two stimuli . the unconditional stimulus must produce a certain response naturally
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Operant Conditioning
- addictive behaviours are positively reinforced through euphoria and negatively due to the anxiety it reduces , Dopamine is a major reinforcer
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SLT
- Addiction via vicarious learning - observation and immitation of a role model + reinforcement = behaviour reproduced
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Classical study
Meyer
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Meyer
- sight of a hypodermic needle created positive feelings in addicts suggesting the impact of cc
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Operant study
Farber
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Farber
difference between alcohol use through negative reinforcement ( escape drinking ) and positive reinforcement ( social drinking ) suggesting that different reinforcers effect differently
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SLT study
Bahr
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Bahr
- 4000 teens - found drug taking by peer was a big influence in initiating drug use - suggests the role of SLT in addiction ( - large sample - only suggests the social effect on addiction not genes or emotions behind addictions
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OVERALL EVALUATION OF LEARNING
+ Explains gambling addiction and other non biological addictions + explains addiction well + some dont get withdrawl syptoms this helps explain this + treatments work well - x extrapolate animal research, unethical - reductionist
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OVERALL EVALUATION OF LEARNING CONT
- Treats symptoms not the cause
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COGNITIVE MODEL OF ADDICTION
- distorted thinking - happiness is imposible without drugs - believe they cannot controll the addiction - focus on positves not the negatives - impaired decision making
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Studies into cognitive model
- Miller and Grant et al
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Miller
amoung alcoholics being treated as outpatients a stronger prediction of relapse was a lack of coping skills suggesting the high cognitive impact
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Grant et al
- Brain scans found increased activity in areas of the frontal cortext associated with decision making during periods of craving - suggesting that the cognitive and biological models are linked ( - objective measures - usefull thearpies )
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OVERALL EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE
- cog accounts more for maintenance and relapse - incomplete explanations based on expectations and beliefs - Cognitve behaviour treatments have been successful
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EXPLANATIONS OF SMOKING
Biological, Cognitive and Learning
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BIOLOGICAL
- effects production of dopamine - brains reward system = pleasure feeling - neurochemical changes = desnsitisation and increased tolerance = increased consumption - relapse due to withdrawl cravings
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Studies
Pargadia et al and Shields
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Pargadia et al
- Found a heritability factor in nicotine withdrawal symptoms suggesting a genetic link - supporting bio explanation
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Shields
- MZ twins raised apart - concordane of 79% - must be a biological factor - rules out nurture
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Evaluation
- ignores nurture - its hard to explain psychological addictions - cant extrapolate - to humans - cant generalise - twins x generalise - reductionist - derterministic + objective + explains drug and smocking addiction
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LEARNING
social learning - observation and imitaion of role models + reinforcements = behaviour - Classical - associate the feeling, appraisal or the packet - operant - maintenence via positive reinforcement
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COGNITIVE
- distorted thinking - happiness is imposible without cigarettes - believe they cannot controll the addiction - focus on positves not the negatives - impaired decision making
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coner et al
tested 675 11-12 year olds - found attitudes toward smoking was generaly a good predictor of smoking behaviour 9 months after testing
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Evaluation of cognitive
- cog accounts more for maintenance and relapse - incomplete explanations based on expectations and beliefs - Cognitve behaviour treatments have been successful
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OVERALL EVALUATION OF EXPLANATIONS OF SMOKING
- ignores the emotional factors behind smoking - reductionist - deterministic
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EXPLANATIONS OF GAMBLING
Biological, Behavioural
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Biological
- increases dopamine production - linked to the brains reward system - personality factors could be under genetic influence
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Bennett
- twin studies - genetics are more involved with pathalogical gambling
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Behavioural
- increased exposure and encouragements could effect - SLT, cc and oc
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Cognitive
irrational thoughts and distorted beliefs towards the addiction
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Griffiths
irrational thoughts lead gamblers to find excuses for losses and attribute winning to their personal skill
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Evaluation of explanations of gambling
- withdrawal systems supports a biological explanation - drugs can work - many factors can influence and many different types of gamling so its hard to apply one explanation to all gambling
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VULNERABILITY TO ADDICTION
Personality, Peers, Age and Stress
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Personality
- neurotic an psychopathic = more vulnerable - addiction is related to personalities - eysenk - dependency = addictions fulfil needs - extraversion - neuroticism and psychotism
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Studies
Chain et al, limerson et al
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chain et al
adolescent addiction showed - low self esteem, passivity, negative outlook and a background of dependent relationships
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Limerson et al
alcoholics and non alcoholics compared on personality and neurological mechanisms - cerebrospinal fluid measured - negative correlation between aggression and and fluid levels some support for personality as an effect on addiction
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Evaluation of personality
+ some individuals become dependent on many things + many recovered addicts develop other strong compulsions
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Peers
- people around you effect addictive behaviour - social learning - conformity - operant conditioning ( group reinforcement)
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Studies
Bandura and Abrams + Hogg
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Bandura
- learnt via observation of role models - young people imitate behaviours of those they see the most
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Abrams + Hogg
assumes group members adopt behaviours behaviours that are central to the social identity of that group
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Evaluation of peers
- if they are already dependent they may just be attracted to the group who have the same addiction - other factors like economic can effect
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Age
Adolescence = best time for initiation also more likely to relapse
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studies
Canada health survey and Helfer
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Canada health survey
- compared smokers who initiated dependency between 12 - 15 years of age and non smokers - early onset = increased likely hood to drink - early onset means people are more likely to be addicted and develop further addictions
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Helfer
- 17% of swiss women over 75 use painkillers or sleeping sleeping tablets more men are likely to drink everyday over the age of 75 - suggests the older the more likely to be addicted
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Evaluation of age
- health interventions that target at specific ages work better - old age dependency isnt looked into much
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Stress
- a way to cope with the situation - some molecular changes associated with chronic stress and addiction - stress may cause addiction or adiction may cause stress
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studies
piazza et al, kosten
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piazza et al
- how stress affected vulnerability to addiction in rats - previous exposure to tail - pinching + amphetamines increased dopamine activity - this suggests stress affects drug taking due to the action of neurobiology
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kosten
- neonate rats - isolation stress 1 hour a day in childhood - greater cocain addiction in adult hood than those who diddnt - suggests the role of early onset stress effects vulnerability to addiction
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Evaluation of stress
- stress could work as an early predictor of addictions - correlational cannot establish a cause and effect - animal studies (unethical and cant extrapolate)
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ROLE OF MEDIA ON ADDICTION
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Positve
- health adverts quit smoking adds - stoptober - good influences
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Negative
- bad influences on tv addictions are normalised so acts as a bad role model
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MODELS OF PREVENTION
- education , social change
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Theory of reasoned action
- attitudes + subjective norms = behavior intention ( depends on personality and situational factors)
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Theory of planned behaviour
Adds percieved behavioural controll ( if you know you can controll your own actions you are more likely to quit
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Self efficacy
the belief in yourself if its low you are less likely to quit
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studies
penny and majer et al
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Penny
- if it fails several times - less likely to belived you will succeed less likely to try - percieved behavioual controll effects quiting
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Mejer et al
investigate role of cog factors (self - efficacy) on abstenence - encourage adults belief in ability to abstain related to positive outcomed - suggests you should enhance self efficiecy in treatment
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interventions
Biological, psycological and public health interventions
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Biological
- if the individual were to abstain - severe withdrawl symptoms would occur - nicotine replacement - Disulfiram
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Nicotine replacement
- relieves withdrawal symptoms - provides positve reinforcements
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Disulfiram
agonistic drug - unpleasant reaction inc - vomit when alcohol is drunk
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Davidson et al
12 moth abstinence taes using nicotine replacement was higher than the placebo patches - suggesting the effectiveness for the treatment
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Moche et al
- assessed the effectiveness of a range of nicotine replacement drugs - finding them effective in sustained abstinence
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Psycological
- aversion therapy, cue exposure and motivational interviewing
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aversion therapy
- associate the stimulus with another stimulus - vomit inducing drugs used so the drug is associated with the addiction not the euphoria
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Cue exposure
- being exposed to the stimuli without initiating the addiction would make them stay addiction free
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Motivational interviewing
- improved motivation to change - the addict will convince themselves - little evidence for this type of therapy
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OVERALL EVALUATION
- hard to maintain the treatment - addresses cause of the problem - not ethical (drug treatments)
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Public health interventions
Goverment - bans - tabaco advertising is banned - age retrictions - community based - groups e.g. AA meatings - Doctors advice - doctors advice helps many people
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BIOLOGICAL MODELS

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Genetics and Dopamine

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Genetics

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Initiation

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Maintenence

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