Adaptive Immunity

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What are the three functions of an antibody?
neutralisation, marking for phagocytosis, activation of complement system
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What is an epitope?
The part of antigen to which the antibody binds
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What is a linear epitope?
When antibody binds parts of molecule adjacent in amino acid sequence
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What is a discontiguous epitope?
When antibody binds amino acids on antigen separated in sequence but brought together in folded protein
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What is a multivalent antigen?
Antigen with more than one epitope
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what does antigenicity refer to?
the ability to combine with antibodies or cell surface receptors
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What does immunogenicity refer to ?
The ability to induce humeral/cell mediated immune response
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What is immunogenicity determined by? (3 things)
1) foreignness 2) molecular size 4) chemical composition and heterogeneity
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What is an adjuvant?
A microbial component that stimulate co-stimultaory activity in B-cells and macrophages
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What 3 things do adjuvants do?
1) increase inflammation locally 2) prolong antigen persistance 3) non-specific proliferation of lymphocytes
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What are the 5 genes for the constant regions of heavy chains and what antibodies do they code for?
alpha --> IgA, delta --> IgD, epsilon --> IgE, gamma --> IgG, mieu --> IgM
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Describe affinity maturation
After somatic hypermutation, sme mutant Ig molecules will have a higher affinity for the antigen- hence more likely to bind and mature into antibody-secreting cells. Hence antibodies of progressively higher affinity are produced
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Which immunoglobulins are a) monomers b) dimers c) pentamers?
a) IgD, E and G b) IgA c) IgM
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Which antibodies have more than one type? how many?
IgG- 4, IgA- 2
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What are the 4 regions of a T-cell Receptor?
Variable, constant, transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail
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What is the vesicle containing MHC class II's sometimes referred to as? What does this stand for?
MIIC (MHC class II Compartment)
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What does CLIP stand for?
CLass-II associated Invariant-chain Peptide
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What does TAP stand for?
Transport associated with Antigen Processing
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What do patients with defective TAP suffer from? What are the symptoms?
Bare lymphocyte syndrome. (only 1% of normal MHC I expression). Cannot develop CD8 T-cell responses hence suffer viral infections
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What does MHC restriction refer to?
how a T-cell that responds to a peptide presented by one MHC allotrope will not respond to the same peptide on another allotrope
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What is the MHC complex? What else can it be referred to as?
A cluster of closely linked genes on Chr6, which encodes MHC moleculesand other proteins involved in antigen processing and presentation. HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) complex
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What two things is the diversity of MHC molecules due to?
1) polygeny 2) genetic polymorphism
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What does polygeny refer to?
Diversity within an individual as a result of the expression of several different genes encoding the different chains (isotopes). i.e. same genes different chains
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What does genetic polymorphism refer to?
Existence within human populations of many forms of each MHC class I and II genes - hence inherit different alleles encoding different allotropes (some have several hundred!)
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How does MHC complex differ to Ig or TCR genes?
No rearrangement is involved
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What do MHC class I genes encode? On what chromosome?
)Heavy alpha chains of 3 different MHC class I moleculs (HLA-A, -B and-C). Chr6.
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What do MHC class II genes encode? On what chromosome?
Alpha and beta chains of three different MHC class II molecules (HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR). Chr6.
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Where is the beta-2-microglobulin coded?
Chr15 (outside the MHC complex)
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What regulates their expression?
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Name 4 other proteins coded for by MHC
HLA-DM, Tasasin, Proteasome subunits, some complement proteins
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What type of IL-2 receptors do naive T-cells express?
low affinity (IL-2R alpha and gamma chains only)
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What type of IL-2 receptors do activated T-cells express? And what do they secrete?
high affinity (IL2R alpha, beta and gamma chains). IL2.
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Card 2


What is an epitope?


The part of antigen to which the antibody binds

Card 3


What is a linear epitope?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is a discontiguous epitope?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is a multivalent antigen?


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