Adaptations of nutrition

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  • Created by: EmmNat14
  • Created on: 29-05-15 10:38
What is nutrition?
Nutrition is the process by which organisms obtain energy to maintain life functions and matter to create and maintain structure.
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What is autotrophic nutrition?
Simple inorganic molecules (eg. green plants)carry out photosynthesis to make organic glucose from the inorganic molecules carbon dioxide and water using energy from the sunlight.
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What is heterotrophic nutrition?
Heterotrophic organisms consume complex organic food material and it down inot smaller, soluble molecules which they can absorb and assimilate.
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What are the different holozoic feeders? (specialised digestive systems)
Carnivores- Soley on meat and other animals Herbivore- Plants Omnivores- Both plants and meat Detritivores- Animals that feed on dead and decaying materials
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What is a saprophyte?
They feed on dead or decaying material and do not have a specialised digestive system. They carry out external digestion in which they feed by secreting extracellular enzymes. They absorb the soluble products of digestion by diffusion. ALL BACTERIA.
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What are parasites?
They are organisms that live in or on another organism, the host. The parasites gains nourishment and causes harm to the host.
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What is mutualism?
It is a close association between members of two different species, in which both organisms benefit from the relationship. E.G. The digestion of cellulose by micro-organisms in the gut of the herbivore.
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What is ingestion?
The taking of food into the body through the mouth
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What is mechanical digestion?
The cutting/crushing action of teeth followed by the rhythmical contraction of the gut to increase the surface area.
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What is chemical digestion?
The breakdown of complex molecules into smaller ones achieved through secretion of enzymes
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What is absorption?
The passage of digested food through the gut wall into the blood
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what is Egestion?
The elimination of food that cnnot be digested from the body e.g cellulose
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What order does the mammalian gut wall go in?
Serosa(though outer connective tissue that protects the gut wall), longitudinal muscle, circular muscle, submucosa (connective tissue,blood and lymph vessels), Mucosa (secretes mucus to protect the cells from digestive enzymes) & last the lumen
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What is peristalsis?
Muscular contractions and relaxations which move the contents along the whole length of the gut. Curricular muscles contract behind the polus and relax after the wave of contraction has passed. Fibres helps peristalsis
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What are the large gland found outside of the gut? (secretions passing through tubes or ducts into the gut cavity)
salivary gut- produce saliva which contains mucus to lubricate the food and amylase which breaks down starch into maltose Liver- Makes bile then secretes into duodenum pancreas- Secretes pancreatic juices into the duodenum.
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What are the glands in the form of cells in mucosa? (secretions pass directly into the gut cavity)
hydrochloric acid- lowers pH to pH of 2 (kills pathogens in food and makes optimum for enzymes) Endopeptidase- Optimum pH of 2. Breaks peptide bonds in the middle of the polypeptide chain.
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What are the glands in form of cells in the submucosa?
Brunners glands which secrete alkaline mucus. the functions are to neutralise stomach acids,optimal pH for enzymes,protect gut wall from enzymes and assist in the movement of food.
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What is the difference between endopeptidase and exopeptidase?
Endopeptidase- hydrolysis peptide bonds in the middle of the polypeptide chain-products are smaller polypeptide chains. Exopeptidase- Hydrolyse the bonds at the end of the polypeptide chain-products are amino acids
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what are the functions of bile?
Got bile salts which emulsify fast (large fat droplets -->smaller) & increases surface area-speeds up digestion by lipase
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How is the ileum well adapted to absorption?
long(5-6metres), the inner layer is folded (big surface area), millions of villi-->big surface area&most of the epithelial cells have villi
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what are two adaptations of the columnar epithelial cells?
lots of mitochondria--> for aerobic respiration which makes ATP for active transport & microvilli-->increases the surface area
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What do goblet cells secrete and why?
In the mucosa layer of the small intestine secrete mucus to neutralise acidity and protect the gut wall.
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What is the method of absorption for glucose and amino acid?
Absorbed by facilitated diffusion and active transport in the blood capillary. These blood vessels drain into the hepatic portal vein in the liver
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What is the method of absorption for fatty acids and glycerol?
Diffuse into the lacteal . This is a lymph capillary so fatty acids and glycerol are transported in the lymphatic system and are returned to the blood stream via the thoracic duct
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What is the method of absorption for dipeptide and dissacharides?
Requires ATP for absorption by active transport. Dipeptides are the digested intra cellularly(inside cells) into simple amino acids,which can then move by diffusion into the blood
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What is absorbed in the large intestine?
Water,mineral ions, vitamins, symbolic bacterial in the gut produce vtamin k and folic acid & Egest indigestible food,bacteria and sloughed cells
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What are the uses of products of digestion?
Glucose(used for aerobic respiration), Amino acids (used to make proteins) & lipids (thermal insulation,protection,energy)
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What are the functions for incisors, canines and molars+pre molars?
Incisors-cutting and biting Canines-cutting and biting Molars+pre molars- Chewing and grinding
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What are the features of a herbivore?
A gap called a diastema which separates the side teeth to the front, unrestricted roots so teeth can continue to grow throughout life, cheek teeth interlock like M+W-increases efficiency, motion on a horizontal plate
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What are the features of a Carnivore?
sharp incisors- rip and tear fresh from the bone, canine teeth are large curved and pointed, Jaw opens vertically, jaw muscles are well developed to grip predators easily, canassials which slide past each other like blades
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What are the features of the gut in ruminant herbivores?
Ruminants are animals such as cows that eat grass, plants contain cell walls(cellulose) which they are unable to digest because they don't produce cellulase enzyme, have a specialised stomach composed of 4 chambers.
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Card 2

Front

What is autotrophic nutrition?

Back

Simple inorganic molecules (eg. green plants)carry out photosynthesis to make organic glucose from the inorganic molecules carbon dioxide and water using energy from the sunlight.

Card 3

Front

What is heterotrophic nutrition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the different holozoic feeders? (specialised digestive systems)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a saprophyte?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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