Adaptations for transport in animals

  • Created by: charley
  • Created on: 28-08-18 16:56
Open system
Blood bathes the tissues directly and is held in a haemocoel
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Closed system
Blood moves in vessels
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Single circulation
Blood passes through the heart once during a circuit
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Double circulation
Blood passes through the heart twice during a circuit
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Pulmonary circulation
Serves the lungs (right to left)
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Systematic circulation
Serves the body tissues (left to right)
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Endothelium
The smooth innermost layer of vessels. Reduces friction with minimal resistance to blood flow. Roughly the same size in veins and arteries.
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Tunica media
The middle layer in vessels consisting of elastic fibres and smooth muscle. Stretches to accommodate changes in blood flow and pressure and recoils to push blood. Thicker in the arteries than in the veins
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Tunica externa
The outer layer in vessels containing collagen fibres. Resists over-stretching. Thicker in arteries than veins.
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Arteries
Thick, muscular walls to withstand the blood at high pressure. No valves except at the base of the aorta and pulmonary artery.
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Capillaries
Thin walls and permeable. Their small diameter slows the rate of blood flow, giving time for the exchange of materials with the surrounding tissue fluid.
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Veins
Larger lumen, thinner. They have semi lunar valves to prevent back flow. They form from venules
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Cardiac muscle
Specialised tissue with myogenic contraction
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Cardiac output
The volume of blood expelled in one minute. = the stroke volume (the volume of blood expelled in one cycle) x bpm
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Atrial systole
The atria contract, increasing blood pressure and pushing blood through the atrioventricular valves into the ventricles
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Ventricular systole
The ventricles contract, increasing blood pressure and pushing blood through the semi lunar valves into the major arteries
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Diastole
The atria and ventricles relax causing blood to flow into the atria and semi lunar valves to shut
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When do valves close?
When the blood pressure downstream is higher than the blood pressure upstream
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Erythrocytes
Red blood cells. They're biconcave to increase the surface area. They don't have a nucleus so theres more room for haemoglobin
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Cooperative bonding
The previous oxygen molecule that binds to the haemoglobin makes easier the subsequent oxygen to bind up until the third oxygen
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Partial pressure
The pressure a gas would exert if it was the only one present
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What would happen if oxygen partial pressure and percentage saturation of haemoglobin was linear?
At high partial pressures haemoglobin affinity would be too low so oxygen would be readily released and not reach the tissues. At low partial pressure haemoglobins affinity would be too high and oxygen wouldn't be released in the tissues.
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The Bohr effect
The movement of the oxygen dissociation curve to the right at a higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide because haemoglobin has a lower affinity for oxygen.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Blood moves in vessels

Back

Closed system

Card 3

Front

Blood passes through the heart once during a circuit

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Blood passes through the heart twice during a circuit

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Serves the lungs (right to left)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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