Adaptations for transport in animals

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  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 04-05-16 10:25
What features of a transport system do animals have?
A suitable medium to carry materials. A pump, e.g. the heart which moves blood.Valves to maintain the flow in one direction.
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What other features do some systems have?
A respiratory pigment, e.g. haemoglobin which allows higher volume of oxygen to be transported. A system of vessels with a branching network to distribute the transport medium over the body.
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What happens in an open circulatory system?
Blood doesn't move around the body in vessels, it bathes the tissue directly. Blood is held in a cavity which is called the haemocoel, found in insects.
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What do insects have and what does it do?
Long, dorsal tube-shaped heart running the body length. Pumps blood at power pressure to haemocol, materials are exchanged between blood and body cells. Blood slowly returns to heart, open circulation starts again.
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Oxygen diffuses directly into tissues from the tracheae, blood doesn't transport oxygen and has no respiratory pigment.
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What happens in closed circulatory systems and what's the two types?
The blood moves in blood vessels. The two types are: single circulation and double circulation.
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What happens in single circulation?
Blood moves through the heart once in it's passage around the body.
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What happens in single circulation in the earthworm?
Blood moves forward in the dorsal vessel and back in the ventral vessel. Five pairs of pseudohearts, thickened, muscular blood vessels pump the blood from the dorsal to the ventral vessel and keep it moving.
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What happens in single circulation in fish?
The ventricle of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood tot he gills, its pressure falls. Oxygenated blood is carried to the tissues. Deoxygenated blood then returns to the atrium of the heart. Blood moves to the ventricle, circulation starts again.
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What happens in double circulation?
Blood passes through the heart twice in its circuit around the body.
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What happens in double circulation in mammals?
Blood's pumped by a musclar heart a t high pressure, gives rapid flow rate through vessels. Organs aren't in direct contact with blood, bathed int issue fluid which seeps out of capillaries. Blood pigment - haemoglobin, carrying oxygen.
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When blood travels to lungs, blood pressure falls. Would be too low to reach rest of body, bloods returned to heart, raises pressure to pump to rest of the body. Makes sure materials are delivered quickly to body cells.
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How is blood transported in mammals?
The double circulatory system
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What is the pulmonary system?
It serves the lungs. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the left side of the heart.
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What is systemic circulation?
It serves the body tissues. Left side of heart pumps oxygenated blood to tissues, deoxygenated blood from body returns to right side of heart. Each circuit the blood passes through the heart twice, once right, once left.
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Why is double circulation more efficient than single?
It's more efficient due to the fact that oxygenated blood is pumped at a higher pressure
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What are the three types of blood vessels?
Arteries, veins and capillaries. Arteries and veins have the same three-layered structure, proportion of layers vary.
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What's in both arteries and veins?
Endothelium, tunica media and tunica externa.
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What is endothelium?
The innoermost layer, it's one cell thick and surrounded by tunica intima. It has a smooth lining to reduce friction so minimum resistance to blood flow.
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What is tunica media?
The middle layer, it contains elastic fibres and smooth muscle. Thicker in arteries than veins. In arteries elastic fibres allow stretching for changes in blood flow & pressure. At certain points, stretched elastic fibres recoil, pushing blood
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on through the artery and maintain pressure. Contraction of smooth muscle regulates blood flow, maintains blood pressure as blood travels further from the heart.
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What is tunica externa?
It's the outer layer, it contains collagen fibres which resist overstretching.
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What do arteries do?
Carry blood away from heart. Have a thick, musclar wall withstanding high pressure. Branch into smaller vessels, arterioles, then divide into capillaries. Cappilaries form vast network, penetrating all tissues and organs. Blood from capillaries
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in venules and then veins which then returns to the heart.
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What do veins have and do?
Larger diameter lumen.. Thinner walls with less muscle, blood pressure and flow rate are lower. Veins above the heart: blood returns by gravity. Other veins: blood moves by pressure from surrounding muscles. The have semi-lunar valves to ensure blood
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flows in one direction only, preventing back flow. These aren't present in arteries, except in the base of the aorta and pulmonary artery.
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What can faulty functioning valves lead to?
Varicose veins and heart failure
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What do capillaries have?
Thin walls, one layer of endothelium. Pores between cells make walls permeable to water and solutes, exchange of materials between blood and tissues take place. Smaller diameter rate of flow slows down.
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What do lots of capillaries do?
Slow down the rate of flow so there's plenty of time for exchange of materials with the surrounding tissue fluid.
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Card 2

Front

What other features do some systems have?

Back

A respiratory pigment, e.g. haemoglobin which allows higher volume of oxygen to be transported. A system of vessels with a branching network to distribute the transport medium over the body.

Card 3

Front

What happens in an open circulatory system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do insects have and what does it do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

continued

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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