Adaptation references

Fitness landscape metaphor
Wright, 1932
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protein evolution can be represented on a fitness landscape, interpretted cautiously as cannot represent all the possibly paths to higher fitness.
Romero & Arnold, 2009
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Red Queen metaphor
Van Valen, 1973
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NZ snails genome reshuffled by sex, allows novel genotypes to escape pathogen. Counter adaptation, fluctuating red queen
Soper at al., 2014
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Possible extinction of Taricha newt due to Thamnophis snake due to escalating red queen counter adaptation
Hanifin et al., 2008
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Large scale duplication of beta ketain in ancestor birds crucial for subsequent evolution of beaks, claws and feathers. Avoids pleiotropic constraint, supporting structural hypothesis
Yi et al., 2013
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Structural changes in MC1R, non-synonymous SNP. Lead to adaptive colouration change, lighter mice
Hoekstra et al., 2006
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Regulatory mutations are 22% of identified genetic changes, but rapidly increasing
Stern & Orgogozo, 2008
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Every gene has multiple regulatory elements before it
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Pitx1 has multiple regulatory elements for spines, jaw and mouth. deactiviation of spine function in freshwater
Shapiro et al., 2004
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Eda locus found by QTL. 2 alleles with AA sequence differences. low armour in freshwater high armoud in marine
Barrnett et al., 2008
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Eda low armour allele is adaptive, found by semi-natural pond experiments
Schluter et al., 2010
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E.coli experiments. In the absence of recombination beneficial mutations took longer to fix. and recombination increase rate of adaptatioon 3 fold in high muatation environment.
Cooper, 2007
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placentals have an added region in the y, after split from marupials
Waters et al., 2001
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Gene loss on the Y 1500-50, extinction in 10 million years
Aitken and Graves, 2002
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presence of Y genes is non-random, Y is essential for male viability, Y will not go extinct
Bellott et al., 2014
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contempory and critic of Darwin debated him on mammary glandsSt George Jackson
St George Jackson
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Michael Behe Argued the vertebrate eye is a novelty and the lack of incremental change contradicts Darwinism and supports intelligent design
Michael Behe
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Antarctic notothenoids antifreeze: trypsinogen to AFGP, duplication of repeat sequence and deletion of central sequence, matches timing of the freezing of the antarctic
Chan et al., 1997
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QTL analysis of different altitude maize. 5-8 QTLs identified for every trait, non expalined >15% var
Jiang et al., 1999
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QTL analysis identifying Eda locus in sticklebacks, explained 74% of var in plate number
Colosimo et al., 2004
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Semi-natural adaptation experiment of Eda locus
Schluter et al., 2010
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Not at the magnitude of a mass extinciton, but could be in 240-540 years
Barnosky et al., 2011
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Extinction rate is 100-1000 time background
Pimm et al, 1995
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Extinction vortex
Gilpin and Soule, 1986
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tarnslocation of 8 texas cougars to florida resulted in a 3 fold increase in pop size and an increase in fitness and longevity of hyrbids
Johnson et al., 2010
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Irish Elk
Gould, 1977
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bone morphogenic protein 4 (Bmp4) implicaated in beak width, tested via experiments on chicken embryos
Abzhanov et al., 2004
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Calmodulin implicated in beak length control, teseted via experiments on chicken embryos. infected embryos had increases of beak length by 10%
Abzhanov et al., 2006
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Testing ZFst accross genome of Geospiza fortis and scanden. Didnt implicate Bmp4 or Calmodulin, but did impllicate ACX1-B haplotype in blunt beaks- fixed in 2 Geospiza ground finches- fortis and manirostris
Lamichaney et al., 2015
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2 morphs of Bicyclus anynana in E Africa wet season morph and dry season morph
Brakefield & Reitsma, 1991
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plasticity creates non genetic variability and selection cannot act on non genetic variability
Pfennig et al., 2010
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As one genotype can sruvive in multiple environments it dampens the fitness trade off preventing divergent selection
Fitzpatrick, 2012
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Phenotypic plasticity can promote diversification by th accumulatin and release of cryptic variation
Pfennig et al., 2010
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Comparison of Dicamptodon and Ambystoma salamanders
Pfennig & McGee, 2010
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food availabilty controls 39% of body size in Onthophagus taurus beetles
Moczeh & Emlen, 1999
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Belwo 2.9g of food, Male beetles do not grow horns
Moczeh & Emlen, 1999
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Horns on dung beetles are costly- mobility, access to tunnels, time to maturity- honest signalling trait ?
Moczeh & Emlen, 1999
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beetles have copted a nutritional stress pathway and linked it to sex determination and a body size threshold
Emlen et al., 2006
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less foos, less insulin, maintains FOXO, deactivates proliferation of horn discs
Emlen et al., 2006
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Darwins Finches ZFst test
Lamenchaney et al., 2015
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Human lactase persistance and selective sweeps (2Mb of hoosygosity)
Tishkoff et al., 2007
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Human pop is expanding seen by Tajima's D < 0
Stephens et al., 2001
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Large amounts of Drosophila genome under positive selection MK N < 1
Sella et al., 2009
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Eda locus in sticklebacks identification
Colosimo et al., 2004
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low armour Eda allele is adaptive
Schluter et al., 2010
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Silver fox artificial breeding experiment
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Guppies and brain size experiment
Kotraschal et al., 2012
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Romero & Arnold, 2009


protein evolution can be represented on a fitness landscape, interpretted cautiously as cannot represent all the possibly paths to higher fitness.

Card 3


Van Valen, 1973


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Card 4


Soper at al., 2014


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Card 5


Hanifin et al., 2008


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