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What were the economic differences between North and South? By the mid-nineteenth century, how much of the USA's total exports were cotton sales?
South - agrarian, planter-dominated. North - modern, industrialised, egalitarian (equal society), materialism. Cotton sales - at least half.
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What % of the population of the USA was made up with Southern states? What % of the nation's manufactured output did the South produce in the 1850s? What did the North have twice as much of in comparison to the South?
35% of the USA's population, 10% of the nation's manufactured output and twice as much railway track as the South.
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What percentage of the Northern and Southern labour forces were in agriculture in 1800 and 1860? Between 1830 and 1860, how many immigrants settled in the USA in the North? In 1860, how many Northerners were foreign-born compared to the Southerners?
1800 - 68% NORTH, 82% SOUTH. 1860 - 40% NORTH, 81% SOUTH. Most of the 5 million immigrants that came to the USA settled in the North. 1 in 6 Northerners foreign-born, 1 in 30 Southerners foreign-born in 1860.
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Why did the South feel exploited by the North in terms of cotton production?
The tariff benefited N. industrialists at the expense of S. farmers, S. depended on N. credit to finance the growing of cotton/tobacco/sugar/rice. Relied on N. to market these + relied on N. vessels - transport. King Cotton profits to N.
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Why was slavery of major importance only in the South? What happened in 1787 and 1808?
Northern climate not suited to plantation agriculture & radical Protestants, especially Quakers, condemned slavery as moral evil. 1787: Congress passed an Ordinance that kept slavery out of North West Territory.1808: US banned slave trade with Africa
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'King Cotton' ensured that slavery survived and throve. How many bales of cotton were produced in 1790? Who improved this production? How?
9000 in 1790. Eli Whitney - invention of 'cotton gin' in 1793. This enabled short-fibre cotton (only cotton which grew easily in South) to be quickly separated from its seed. By 1830s, 2 million bales a year produced as a result.
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'King Cotton' soon outstripped all other plantation crops in economic importance. The demand was massive, mainly from BRITAIN. The profits were too. This meant that the cotton belt spread WESTWARDS - where to? Why was slave labour ideal?
Spread westwards to: KENTUCKY, TENNESSEE, ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI, ARKANSAS and TEXAS. Slave labour was ideal because cotton production needed a large amount of unskilled labour.
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What were slaves represented as for representation + taxation purposes? Most abolitionists 1800-30 supported gradual emancipation, with financial compensation for slave owners - slaves should be encouraged to return to Africa. What happened in 1822?
3/5 of a free person. 1822 - USA purchased Liberia (west coast Africa) as a base for returning ex-slaves. Only 10,000 blacks returned by 1860; in the same period the USA slave population increased by 2 million. Many ex-slaves had no wish to go back.
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Who was William Lloyd Garrison? What was established in 1833? How many members did it have by 1838?
Abolitionist - in 1831 he launched new abolitionist journal - The Liberator - said slavery was a sin, wanted immediate abolition. 1833 - militant National Anti-Slavery Society. 250,000 members by 1838. Organised frequent+massive petitions to Congress
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What was introduced in 1836 by Congress? What was it? When did Britain abolish slavery throughout its colonies? What was growing as a result of immigration? What was the 'Second Great Awakening'?
The 'gag rule' was introduced. It ensured that abolitionist petitions (like that of the National Anti-Slavery Society) were not discussed. Britain abolished slavery in 1833. Catholic Church membership grew. An upsurge in evangelical Protestantism.
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Why did abolitionist success only have limited appeal in the North at first? What happened in 1837?
Northerners feared northern exodus of liberated slaves + feared the effect the crusade would have in the South - anti-slavery meetings broken up by angry Northern mobs. 1837 - Elijah Lovejoy first abolitionist martyr - murdered in Illinois by N. mob.
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Why did the abolitionists have limited political success at first? What did they set up? In 1840 how many votes did its presidential candidate win? What did Garrison do?
They failed to win the support of either the Whig or Democrat Party, so they set up their own Liberty Party. 7000 votes. Garrison refused to vote under the US Constitution, which he regarded as a pro-slavery document.
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Some abolitionists wanted to initiate a slave revolt. Most favoured 'moral' force and hoped to win white support in the South though. What happened in Virginia in 1831? Why did the abolitionist crusade make slave positions worse?
Nat Turner led slave revolt, killing 55 whites (mainly women + children) before the insurrection was crushed. Slaves better off than most working men in Northern factories/freed blacks in Haiti/Africa. Crusade placed new restrictions on slaves.
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How many slaves were there compared to whites in the 15 Southern states in 1860? Where were they concentrated? Where did slaves outnumber whites? In 1850 and 1860 how many white Southern families owned slaves? Why was there a decrease in 1860?
Nearly 4 million slaves compared to 8 million whites. Concentrated mainly in LOWER South. Slaves outnumbered whites in South Carolina. 1850 - 1 in 3 white Southern families owned slaves. 1860 - 1 in 4. Due to rising cost of slaves.
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Why did the decline in the number of slave owners worry some Southern politicians? In 1860, what % of slave owners owned no more than 5 slaves?
Because they believed that the South would be more united if every white family owned a slave and therefore had a vested interest in slavery. 50% of slave owners owned no more than 5 slaves.
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What % of slaves worked in cotton production? What % in tobacco? What % in sugar, rice and hemp? What % were domestic servants? What % of slaves lived in towns/worked in a variety of industries?
55% cotton. 10% tobacco. 10% sugar/rice/hemp. 15% domestic servants. 10% livedin towns/worked in variety of industries.
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By 1860, how many FREE blacks (approximately) were there in the South? What did Southern free blacks have to carry at all times? Why? How many blacks lived in the North in 1860?
About 250,000 free blacks in the South. Had to carry documentation proving their freedom at all times. Otherwise, would risk being enslaved - no political rights. 200,000 blacks lived in the North in 1860.
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How many states allowed blacks to vote on terms of parity with whites in 1860? By 1861 what did Northern blacks have? Who published 'The Impending Crisis' in 1857? What did he argue? Who followed/supported this man?
Three. Northern blacks had more rights than at any time in the previous 30 years. Southerner HILTON ROWAN HELPER. He argued that slavery was responsible for the South's economic decline. Ulrich Phillips (modern historian).
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Which recent historians have argued that slavery was an efficient form of economic organisation, not deterring the Southern economy? What happened to slave prices in the 1850s? What did this mean for slave investors?
Stampp, Fogel and Engerman. Slave prices doubled in the 1850s. This meant that slave investors received returns similar to those who invested in industry.
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Why can the South lagging behind the North in industrial development be seen as a sign of its economic health? From 1840-60, what did the increase in per capita incme in the South exceed? What could slavery be seen as also (socially)?
It was making so much money that it had no incentive to industrialise. 1840-60, increase in per capita income in the South exceeded the rate of increase in the rest of the USA! A system of social control - kept blacks in their place; white supremacy.
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Who claimed that Southern slave agriculture, as a result of specialisation, careful management and economies of scale, was 35% more efficient than small-scale family farming?
Fogel and Engerman.
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Who said that slavery was benign and benevolent and that slaves and their owners were marked by 'gentleness, kind-hearted friendship and mutual loyalty'? Who said that slavery was harsh, caused persistent conflict and were 'a troublesome property'?
Ulrich Phillips. Kenneth Stampp.
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Who produced 'Time on the Cross' and said that slave conditions were reasonably good and slavery was an efficient system of labour, and that the slaves were controlled with minimal force?
Robert Fogel and Stanley Engerman.
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Who had more seats in the House of Representatives - North or South? Therefore, what was the other side determined to do? What did this mean?
Northern states had more seats in the HoR. Meant that Southerners were determined to maintain a position of equality in the SENATE. Westward expansion was therefore a crucial issue.
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Card 2

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What % of the population of the USA was made up with Southern states? What % of the nation's manufactured output did the South produce in the 1850s? What did the North have twice as much of in comparison to the South?

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35% of the USA's population, 10% of the nation's manufactured output and twice as much railway track as the South.

Card 3

Front

What percentage of the Northern and Southern labour forces were in agriculture in 1800 and 1860? Between 1830 and 1860, how many immigrants settled in the USA in the North? In 1860, how many Northerners were foreign-born compared to the Southerners?

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Card 4

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Why did the South feel exploited by the North in terms of cotton production?

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Card 5

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Why was slavery of major importance only in the South? What happened in 1787 and 1808?

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