Actual c2!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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What do ionic compounds always have structurally?
Giant ionic latices.
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Why do inonic compounds have regular lattice arrangements?
Strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions in all directions.
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Give three properties of ionic compounds.
High melting and boiling points and carry currents when molten and dissolve in water.
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How do you show electronic structure of ions with diagrams?
Use big square brackets and a positive or negative ( [Na]+ [Cl]- )
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What is covalent bonding?
sharing of the electrons on the outer shell.
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What diagram do you draw to show covalent bonds?
Dot and cross diagrams.
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What are the two types of covalent bonds and give an example of each
Simple molecular substances and water, giant covalent structures (macromolecules) and diamond..
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Give three properties of simple molecular substances.
Low melting points and low boiling points (weak bonds) and do not conduct electricity
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Give two properties of giant covalent structures (macromolecules).
High boiling and high melting point (strong bonds) and don't conduct electricity (except graphite).
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Give two properties of metallic structures.
conduct electricity (free electrons) and atoms can slide easily (soft).
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What are alloys and give one benefit and an example.
Alloys are two or more metals mixed together, makes the harder and a example is steel.
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What are fullerenes and where are they used?
They are molecules of carbon shaped like hollow balls or closed tubes arranged in a hexagonal rings.
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Why do metals conduct electricity?
Delocalised electrons cause positive charged atoms which can carry a current,
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What forces keep the metal atoms together?
Strong electrostatic attraction due to the ions.
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Why is diamond very hard and graphite soft?
carbon forms 4 strong covalent bonds in a ridged structure and carbon has 3 bonds in graphite and layers can slide.
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Why are alloys harder/stronger?
The atoms are different sizes which disrupts the neat layers of atoms so they can no longer slide.
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What is nitinol and give one advantage.
Mixture of nickel and titanium and they go back to their original shapes.
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Describe thermosoftening polymers.
Individual tangled chains with weak intermolecular forces meaning they melt easily.
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What is paper chromatography?
Putting a sample on some paper and then dipping it in solvent, the solvent will dissolve the sample and it will separate it out (dots of the colours up the paper).
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how do you work out empirical formula?
mass given in experiment divided by Ar the simply the ratio by diving by the smallest number.
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whats the formula for percentage yield?
actual yield/predicted yield
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Name four things that effect rate of reaction.
Temp, catalyst, surface area (solid), concentration, pressure (gas)
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how do you measure rate of reaction?
amount of reactant used of product divided by time.
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How can you measure rate of reaction (three ways)?
Observe a mark and measure how long it takes to disappear, measure the change in mass and collect the gas to see the volume of gas given off.
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What is the collision theory?
The rate of reaction depends on how hard and how often particles collide.
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How does a catalyst work?
Gives the reacting particles a surface to stick to which increase the number of collisions.
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What is an acid, alkali and base?
Acid is ph below 7, base is ph above 7 and alkali is base that dissolves in water.
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Acid + Metal ---> ?
Salt + hydrogen
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What salt will be made from hydochloric acid, sulfuric acid and nitric acid?
Carbonate salt, sulfate salt and nitrate salts (when neutralised)
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Acid + metal oxide and acid + metal hydroxide --->
Salt + water
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What salt forms from hydrochloric acid + copper sulfate?
Copper carbonate (+water).
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Name three things you could use to make soluble salts.
Metal, insoluble base or a alkali.
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How do you make a insoluble salt using a metal or insoluble base?
Add either the metal, metal oxide, metal hydroxide to the acid, the solid will dissolve and filter it to remove excess metal (oxide/hydroxide) and the evaporate some water then leave the rest to evaporate..
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What does oilrig mean?
Oxidation is loss reduction is gain.
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Why is the electrolysis of table salt useful (sodium chloride).
produces hydrogen (negative electrode,H+) Chlorine (positive elctrode, Cl-) and sodium chloride solution.
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Why is aluminium mixed with cryolite?
Reduces the melting point from 2000 to 900 degrees making it a cheaper process.
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Why do you put the object you're electro plating at the negative electrode?
Metal form positive ions which will go to the negative electrode.
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Give two reasons why electro playing is used.
Decoration and to make things good conductors e.g. plating with copper.
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What kind of substances are used in electrolysis and why?
Ionic compounds and becuase they conduct electricity when molten or dissolved because there ions are free to move!!!
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why do inonic compounds have regular lattice arrangements?


Strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions in all directions.

Card 3


Give three properties of ionic compounds.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How do you show electronic structure of ions with diagrams?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is covalent bonding?


Preview of the front of card 5
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