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What are the 3 sub atomic particles in a atom?
Proton, neutron and electron.
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Which of the 3 subatomic particles decide which element it is?
The proton.
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What is the link between the elements in the vertical columns?
They are in groups because they have similar properties.
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Give an example of a similar property between group 1 metals.
All react with water to produce alkaline solutions.
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Which number on the periodic table do you use to find out number of electrons?
Number of protons because its the same as the number of electrons.
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What is a compound?
When two or more elements react and from chemical bonds.
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Which of the subatomic particles are involved in bonding?
Electrons cant either be taken away, given away or shared.
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What is ionic bonding and how does it work?
Transferring of electrons, the atoms then get opposite charges and are attracted to each other.
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What is covalent bonding?
When atoms share electrons with another atom to fill their outer shell.
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Why do we need to balance equations?
There are the same amount of atoms at the end of a reaction as the start.
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6g of oxygen completely reacting with 4 grams of magnesium would give what?
10g of magnesium oxide.
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Which compound is limestone mainly made of?
Calcium carbonate.
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What happens when you heat limestone?
The calcium carbonate thermally decomposes to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
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What will form when you react calcium carbonate with an acid?
A calcium salt, carbon dioxide and water
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What salt will be produced from calcium carbonate + Sulfuric acid?
Calcium sulfate.
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What kind of salts do hydrochloric acid make?
Chlorides.
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Calcium oxide + water ---> ?
Calcium hydroxide.
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What kind of solution is calcium hydroxide (Lime water) and give two uses.
Alkali solution, used to neutralise acidic soil and testing for co2.
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How do you do the test for carbon dioxide?
Make solution of calcium hydroxide in water, bubble the gas through it, the solution will turn cloudy in the presence of carbon dioxide.
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What is the equation for the test for carbon dioxide?
Calcium hydroxide + Carbon dioxide --> Calcium carbonate + water.
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How do you make cement?
Powdered limestone is heated in a kiln with powdered clay.
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How do you make mortar?
Cement is mixed with sand and water ( you can also add calcium hydroxide).
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How do you make concrete?
Mix cement with sand and water and gravel.
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Give 3 disadvantages of quarrying limestone.
It is loud, produces lots of dust, destroys habitats.
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Give 3 advantages of quarrying limestone.
Provide building materials, chemicals can be used in medicine, provides lots of jobs.
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Give 4 advantages of limestone.
Widely available, cheap to make, useful products e.g. make cement and looks good.
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What is the limestone cycle?
Limestone --> Quicklime --> Slaked lime --> limewater --> Limestone.
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What is a metal ore?
A rock which contains enough metal to make it worthwhile extracting.
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A metal ore is usually a what of its metal and give an example.
An oxide of its metal, aluminium oxide (bauxite).
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Give 3 ways the economics (profits) of metal extraction can change over time.
Market price drops might, price increase so might extract more, technology improves so it makes it worth extracting if it wasn't previously.
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Describe reduction using carbon.
Oxygen is removed from it by reacting the metal oxide with the carbon, only works on things less reactive than carbon in the reactivity series.
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Give an example of a reduction of Iron oxide.
Iron oxide + Carbon ---> Iron + Carbon dioxide.
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Give two uses of electrolysis.
Extracting ores more reactive than carbon and purifying metal e.g. copper.
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What do electrolysis mean?
Splitting up using electricity.
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What is the liquid in electrolysis and why is it needed?
The electrolyte is a molton ironic compound and needed because it contains free ions which complete the circuit.
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What happens at the positive and negative of electrolysis?
At the positive electrons are taken and at the negative electrons are given to the ion.
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In the electrolysis of copper, what is the anode made of and why?
Made of impure copper because it will dissolve.
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In the electrolysis of copper, what is the electrolyte made of and why?
Made of copper sulfate solution because it contains Cu2+ ions.
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What type of reaction can be used to extract copper from a solution?
A displacement reaction.
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Describe the displacement reaction.
Add a more reactive metal to a dissolved metal compound, the more reactive metal will replace the less reactive in the compound because the more reactive metal bonds more strongly and pushes the other one out.
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Give an example of when the displacement reaction is used.
Scrap iron is more reacitve than copper, so when iron is added to the copper sulfate solution, it becomes a iron sulfate solution and copper.
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Describe bioleaching.
Using bacteria to seperate copper from copper sulfate, bacteria gets energy from the bond between copper and sulfur which separates them out, the solution produced contains copper which can be extracted (by filtering).
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Describe phytomining.
Plants are grown in copper rich soil, can can up or store copper so it gradually builds up on their leaves, plants are harvested and burnt, copper is collected from the ashes.
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Give on advantage and one disadvantage of these two methods.
They dont damage the environment, but they are slow.
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Give three advantage of metal extraction in terms of economics.
Lots of useful products can be sold, supply with lots of jobs and brings in money to local areas.
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Give three reasons why we need recycle metals.
It uses up lots of fossil fuels and we are running out, Short supply of some metal ores and burning fossils fuels produce acid rain which damage the environment.
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Give 3 properties of metals.
Good conductors, strong and can be hammered into different shapes.
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Give 3 properties of copper.
Good electrical conductor, hard and strong and doesn't react with water.
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Give 3 properties of aluminium.
Corrosion resistant, low density and isn't very strong but forms strong alloys.
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Give 3 properties of titanium.
Corrosion resistant, low density and very strong.
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Why is aluminium a good choice for an aircraft?
It makes strong alloys and it light.
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Which of the 3 metals would you use for hip replacements and why?
Titanium because its corrosion resistant and very strong and light.
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What is 'metal faitgue'?
Metals get 'tired' when stress and strains are put on them repeatedly which leads to the metal breaking.
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Give one disadvantage of some metals.
Some corrode in air (rust) and lose their strength,
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What is an alloy?
An alloy when two metals or a metal and a non metal are mixed together to have the properties they want.
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Describe the structure of iron and give one disadvantage.
Identical atoms in a regular arrangement, they are able to slide over each other which makes it soft.
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What is added to iron to make steel and why?
Small amounts of carbon to disrupt the regular arrangement of atoms so they cant slide over each other, meaning its a lot harder.
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Describe low carbon steel.
0.1% carbon, easily shaped and used for car bodies.
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describe high carbon steel.
1.5% carbon, very hard and inflexible and used as blades for tools and bridges
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Describe stainless steel.
chromium is added (or nickel), corrosion resistant and used for cutlery.
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What metals are mixed to make bronze?
Copper and tin.
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What metals are mixed to make cupronickel?
Copper and nickel.
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Why would gold alloys be made in jewellery?
Gold is too soft.
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What is crude oil?
A mixture of many different hydrocarbons.
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Why is it important that its a mixture of hydrocarbons?
The hydrocarbons aren't chemically bonded so keep their original properties meaning the crude oil can be separated out using fractional distillation.
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Describe how fractional distillation works.
Heated crude oil is added at the bottom of the fractionating column, the vaporised oil rises up and the various fractions are tapped out at the different levels where they condense.
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In fractional distillation, do the shorter hydrocarbons come out the bottom or the top?
The top of the fractionating column.
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What is an alkane?
Hydrocarbons where each carbon atom has 4 hydrogen atoms bonded to it.
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What is the general formula for Alkanes?
CnH2n+2
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List the 4 basic trends for alkanes.
Shorter molecules are more runny (less viscous or gloopy), more volatile (turn into gas at low temp so lower condensing and vaporising points), lower boiling point and more flammable.
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Why is refinery gas ideal for bottled gas?
Shorter chain makes it volatile, low boiling point (gas at room temp) and flammable.
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Why is petrol ideal for car engines?
Long chains mean it has a high boiling point, its a liquid so ideal for storing.
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Give 3 advantages of crude oil in modern life.
Readily available, used to make chemicals and plastics and more reliable than renewable sources.
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Give 3 disadvantages of crude oil.
It is non-renewable so it will run out one day, burning it contributes to global warming and oil spills can happen.
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What happens to the hydrocarbon when its burnt?
It is oxidised, so produces carbon dioxide and water vapour.
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How does acid rain occur?
If the fuel contains sulfur impurities it will be released at sulfur dioxide, sulfur dioxide mixes with the clouds and forms sulfuric acid.
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Give 3 disadvantages of acid rain.
Kills trees, kills some animals and ruins some buildings such as limestone buildings.
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Why is it hard to remove sulfur impurities from fuels?
It cost more money and requires more energy which usually comes from burning more fuels.
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What is global dimming?
Particles of soot and ash cause less sunlight to reach the surface and more to be reflected away off the particles.
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Give 1 pro and one con of ethanol.
Pro is that its carbon neutral, con is engines will need to be converted.
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Give 1 pro and 1 con of bio diesel.
Pro is that its carbon neutral, con is its expensive to make.
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Give 1 pro and 1 con of hydrogen gas.
Pro is that only water is produced, con is that the special fuels cells are expensive.
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What is cracking?
Splitting up long chained hydrocarbons .
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Why would be crack a long chained hydrocarbon?
Long chained ones are gloopy, we can make useful fuels and materials such as ethene.
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What sort of reaction is cracking?
A thermal decomposition reaction.
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Describe the process of cracking.
Heat long hydrocarbons to vaporise them, pass the vapour over powdered catalyst (usually aluminium oxide) at 400-700 degrees.
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What are most of the products of cracking?
Alkanes and alkenes.
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What is a alkene?
A hydrocarbon which have a double bond between two of the carbon atoms.
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Why are alkenes unsaturated or saturated and why?
Unsaturated because the double bond can open up and make more bonds.
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What are the first two alkenes and their formulas?
ethene, C2H4 and propene, C3H6.
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What is the general formula for alkenes?
CnH2n
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How can you test for alkenes?
Add the substance to bromine water, it will turn orange to colourless because the double bond opens up and bonds with bromine.
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How do you make Ethanol from Ethene?
Hydrate ethene with steam in the presence of a catalyst.
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Give two advantages of making Ethanol from Ethene.
Cheap process because Ethene is cheap and not much is wasted.
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Give one disadvantage of making Ethanol from Ethene.
Ethene is made from crude oil which in non renewable.
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Give one other way Ethanol can be produced.
From the fermentation of sugar.
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What is meant by fermentation?
The process where bacteria or yeast break down sugars using anaerobic respiration.
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What is polymerisation?
joining together of lots of small alkene molecules (monomers) to make large molecules called polymers.
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What 3 things effect the physical properties of a polymer?
What its made from, temperature its made at and the pressure its made at.
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What conditions are needed to make low density poly(ethene) and give one use and why.
200 degrees and 2000 atmospherics, plastic bags because they are light and stretchy.
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Give one disadvantage of most polymers?
They are not biodegradable so its difficult to get rid off meaning they are dumped in landfill sites.
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How do you get oils from plants?
Crush the plant material, press the crushed material between metal plates, seperate the oil and plant material with a centrifuge then distill the oil to remove impurities.
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Give one use of vegetable oil and why its used.
Used in food because it has lots of energy, lots of vitamins and essential fatty acids.
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Why is vegetable oil used for cooking?
High boiling points allows food to be cooked faster at higher temp, gives different flavours because of the chemicals that are soluble in the oil.
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Why is vegetable oil used as fuels?
its a biofuel and provides a lot of energy, it also burns in the same way as ordinary diesel so engines don't have to be remade.
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What makes an oil unsaturated?
It has a double carbon bond just like alkenes.
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What is meant by a polyunsaturated fat?
It contains more than 1 double carbon bond.
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Give two properties of unsaturated vegetable oils.
Liquid at room temperature and can be hardened by reacting it with hydrogen.
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Describe hydrogenation and give a benefit of it.
React the hydrogen to the unsaturated vegetable oil to open the carbon bonds, it gives oils a higher melting point (solid at room temp).
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What is a partially hydrogenated unsaturated oil and give an example and why its only partially hydrogenated.
When only some of the double bonds are turned into single bonds, only partially because margarine would be too hard otherwise.
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Give 2 reasons why partially hydrogenated oils are often used instead of butter.
They are cheaper than butter and keep longer (longer shelf life)
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Give 1 reason why partially hydrogenated oils are bad.
Lots of 'trans fats which are bad for you.
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Are saturated or unsaturated fats healthier and why?
Unsaturated fats are healthier because saturated fats increase the amount of cholesterol in the blood.
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Are animal fats usually saturated or unsaturated?
Saturated and vegetable oils are usually unsaturated.
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What are emulsions?
Lots of droplets of one liquid suspended in another liquid.
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What are the two types of emulsions?
Oil-in-water and Water-in-oil emulsions.
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How do you make a oil-in-water emulsion thicker and give an example.
Adding more oil to it, milk has 3% oil and double cream has 50% oil.
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Give 3 examples of oil-in-water emulsions.
Milk, creams and moisturising lotions.
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What does hydrophilic and hydrophobic mean?
Hydrophilic is when its attracted to water and hydrophobic is when its attracted to oil
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How do you stop water and oil separating out using emulsions?
Shake the oil and water with a but of emulsifier, the hydrophilic bit faces out and the hydrophobic latches to the oil, the hydrophilic end latches to water so it doesn't separate.
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Give 2 pros of emulsifiers.
Gives products longer shelf life and low fat food can have good textures.
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Give 1 con of emulsifiers.
Some people are allergic to certain emulsifiers.
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Describe Wegener's theory of continental drift.
Noticed that coasts of continents seemed to match like a jigsaw, matching layers of rocks on the coasts of the continents fossils were found in the wrong places.
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Give two reasons why his theory wasn't accepted for many years.
He couldnt explain how they moved very well and the forces needed to push a continent would stop the earth spinning.
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What are the 4 main sections of the Earth?
The crust, mantle, outer core and inner core.
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Why does the mantle flow?
Radioactive decay is occurring which produces heat which causes it to flow in convection currents.
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What is the Earth's core made of?
Iron and nickel.
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What is the name given to the large cracked plates on the Earth's crust?
Tectonic plates.
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How fast do these plates move?
A few Cm a year.
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Why is it impossible to detect Earthquakes?
The plates stay still for long periods of time and then suddenly shift forward.
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Give one clue that there may be an Earth quake.
Molten rock rises near the surface causing the ground to bulge.
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Describe phase 1 of the Earth's atmosphere.
Surface was molten and too hot so there wasnt one, volcanoes kept erupting which gave out gases which made the atmosphere (mostly c02 with some water vapour and methane), water vapour condensed into oceans
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Describe phase 2 of the Earth's atmosphere.
Plants and algae formed and took in co2 and gave out 02, they died and the carbon was locked up as fossil fuels.
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Describe phase 3 of the Earth's atmosphere.
build up of 02 allowed for complex organisms to evolve, ozone layer was produced (O3) which blocked the harmful rays from the sun.
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What is the primordial soup theory of how life formed?
Atmospher was rich in nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia and methane, lightning struck and caused a chemical reaction between the gases, this reaction made amino acids which collected to form primordial soup, amino acids combined to produce organic matter.
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Describe the fractional distillation of air.
Air is filtered to remove dust, cooled to -200 degrees so its liquid, water and c02 freezes and is removed, liquid air is slowly heated, the gases are separated, oxygen and argon are separated separately after.
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Give one natural resourse that absorb c02 and give one problem with it.
The oceans but it makes them acidic which is bad for some fish.
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Which of the 3 subatomic particles decide which element it is?

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The proton.

Card 3

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What is the link between the elements in the vertical columns?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Give an example of a similar property between group 1 metals.

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Card 5

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Which number on the periodic table do you use to find out number of electrons?

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