Acquiring a theory of mind

What is intuitive psychology and false beliefs?
Being able to connect with other people: empathy, communication, deception, morality
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What is the value of false belief?
Methodological, functional communication and deception
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What is the unexpected transfer test?
while maxi is out playing, his mum takes his chocolate from the cupboard and grates some of it into cake, Maxi is returining from play feeling hungry, he wants his chocolate
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Where did children often say Maxi would look for his chocolatE?
In the fridge rather than in the cupboard where he left it
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What is the Deceptive box test?
It gets round criticisms that younger children had difficulty with story comprehension
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What happens in the DEceptive box test
They show the child a pencil in the tube of smarties, and ask, what did you first think was inside? and what would their friend say was in tube?
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What were the children likely to say?
That there was a pencil in the box and their friend would say there was a pencil in the smarties box
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What did Lewis et al suggest?
That children told lies about doing something that was forbidden
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What did Chandler et al suggest?
Children destroyed tell tale evidence to prevent a competitor finding hidden treasure
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What did Sullivan and Winner suggest?
Children changed the content of a familiar container in order to trick the experimenter
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What did cole and Mitchell suggest about the development of the theory of the mind?
Single parenting, parental distress and poor economic situation; children were developmentally disadvantaged in passing a test of false belief
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What did dunn et al suggest about the development of the theory of the mind?
Sensitive parenting: Mothers who explained causality to their children, especially psychological causality, were developmentally advantaged in “retrodictive inference” – explaining that a person searches in the wrong place because they hold false B
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What did Perner et al suggest about the development of the theory of the mind?
Number of siblings: children with more siblings (especially older siblings) are developmentally advantaged in passing a test of false belief compared with singletons
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What did Lewis et al suggest about the development of the mind?
Size of family: children in extended families are developmentally advantaged
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what was the first trial of Onishi and Baillargeon?
the experimenter would put the pine cone under the green box, come back later and check the green box
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What is the False belief trial?
The pine cone would be moved to the yellow box when the experimenter left the room, when she came back she would check the green box
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However what happened in some tials?
She would check the yellow box
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What was being measured?
The children's dwell time
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What was the highest dwell time?
When the experimenter checked the yellow box straight away without knowing the pine cone was there
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What is true belief?
Where the experimenter watches the pine cone move from green to yellow box and check the yellow box after leaving the room
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What question did Mitchell et al ask?
Do adults sometimes have difficulty separating their own belief from other people’s
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What is the task?
Kevin stands on a chair and sees juice in his jug, he leaves the room for about an hour he returns with rebecca and she announces there is milk in the jug
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What was condition one?
No extra information available to observing participant
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What was condition 2?
Participant has the privileged information that Rebecca replaced the juice with milk
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What were the results?
During condition 2, they said kevin would believe Rebecca if they had the extra information = BIAS
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What did baron-Cohan investigate?
Children with autism have difficulty with false belief
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what was the task?
Sally puts her ball in the box and then leaves, Sally puts her ball in the box and then leaves, Sally returns for her ball. Where will she look?
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What was the result?
80% of children with autism gave an incorrect judgment
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What was the developmental delay?
not explain the high rate of failure.
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What does this suggest?
Maybe autism entails an impaired theory of mind
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What was added?
A control group of down syndroms and autism scored significantly lower than them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the value of false belief?

Back

Methodological, functional communication and deception

Card 3

Front

What is the unexpected transfer test?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where did children often say Maxi would look for his chocolatE?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the Deceptive box test?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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