Acids - Bases

A bit of a summary of acid base info for a2

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  • Created by: nick
  • Created on: 08-01-14 23:23
Acid + Base =
Salt + water
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Acid + Carbonate =
Salt + Carbon dioxide + water
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Description of an Acid
a Proton donor, neutralised by a base, pH
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Description of a Base
Proton acceptor, neutralised by an acid, pH>7
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What theory characterises an acid or base?
Bronsted-Lowry theory
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When a proton is donated by an acid into water, what is produced?
Oxonium Ion H3O+
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What is Amphoteric? Name an example?
A substance that can act as both acid and base depending whether it is in the presence of an acid or base. E.g. Water.
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What does conjugate Acid/base mean?
A conjugate acid is an species which accepts protons in the reverse reaction where a conjugate base is donating.
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HA(aq) H+(aq) + A-(aq). Explain what it is representing?
The forward reaction shows an acid donating a proton. The proton can be taken back, if a stronger acid is added, by the conjugate base of the Acid A- accepting the proton and thus acting as a base. They are a conjugate acid- base pair.
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What defines a strong acid?
A strong acid is one that is a powerful proton donor and has a HIGH tendency to donate a proton.It is said to be complete as no unreacted HA remains (aq). It will have a weak conjugate base.
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What defines a weak acid?
An acid that is a moderate to weak proton donor.It will have a weaker to tendency to donate protons.
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About an oxonium ion?
It is formed from water receiving a proton from an acid. It is therefore present in every acid (aq). It can act as a acid by donating a proton.The extra H is bonded dative covalently.
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What is an alkali?
A base that form OH- ions in solution.
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What is a conjugate acid-base pair.
A acid in the forward reaction will donate a proton, whilst in the reverse reaction the acid ion(without the H+) will act a base an accept a proton. Thus called a conjugate base.
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Indicators are actually what.... ?
Weak acids that have a conjugate base pair. The equilibrium shifts according to whether it is in a base or acid.
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Carboxylic acids are an example of a ...
Weak acid - they partially dissociate to form oxonium ion and carboxylate ion (R-COO^-)
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Carboxylic acids react with a base to produce..?
Salt and water
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Derivatives of Carboxylic acid include?
Esters, Amides, Acid anhydrides, Acyl Chlorides...
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In order of pH which are the strongest acids and why?. Phenols, water, Alcohols, Carboxylic acids.
Alcohol, water, Phenols, carboxylic acids. This is due to the stability of the anion. The carboxylate is the most stable as the -ve charge of the ion can be delocalised across several atoms. Thus the strongest acid.
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How can you test the acidic strengths of alcohols, phenols, water and COOH.
React with NaOH and sodium carbonate. Check for bubbling and salts being produced.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Acid + Carbonate =

Back

Salt + Carbon dioxide + water

Card 3

Front

Description of an Acid

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Description of a Base

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What theory characterises an acid or base?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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