C4: Acids and Bases

What is an acid?
A substance that forms aqueous solutions with a pH of less than 7. They form H+ ions in water.
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What is a base?
A substance with a pH greater than 7.
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What is an alkali?
A base that dissolves in water to form a solution with a pH greater than 7. Alkalis form OH- ions in water.
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What is the equation for neutralisation?
H+ + OH- = H2O
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What does acid strength tell you?
What proportion of the acid molecules ionise in water.
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What does the concentration of an acid tell you?
How much acid there is in a certain volume of water.
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Hydrochloric acid reacts with copper oxide to produce what?
Copper chloride and water
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Sulfuric acid reacts with potassium hydroxide to produce what?
Potassium sulfate and water
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Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium carbonate to produce what?
Sodium chloride, water and carbon dioxide
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Sulfuric acid and calcium carbonate react to produce what?
Calcium sulfate, water and carbon dioxide
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What order do the elements in the reactivity series go in? Starting from most reactive
Potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, carbon, zinc, iron, hydrogen, copper, silver, gold and platinum
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How is the speed of a reaction indicated?
By the rate at which bubbles of hydrogen are given off.
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In general, what will copper not react with?
cold, dilute acids
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What is the equation that links salt, metal, acid and hydrogen?
Acid + metal = salt + hydrogen
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What would happen if magnesium reacted with a cold, dilute acid such as HCl or H2SO4?
It would react vigorously and produce lots of bubbles
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HCl reacts to form what?
Chloride salts
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H2SO4 reacts to form what?
Sulfate salts
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A metal and water reacts to produce what?
metal hydroxide + hydrogen
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Which metals won't react with water?
zinc, iron and copper
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Which metals will react with water?
potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium
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What type of reaction separates a metal from its oxide?
A reduction reaction
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If you put iron in a solution of copper sulfate what will the product be?
Iron sulfate and copper
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What would the ionic equation be for the reaction of zinc and iron sulfate: Zn + FeSO4 = ZnSO4 + Fe
Zn + Fe2+ = Zn2+ + Fe
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What happens during electrolysis?
An electric current is passed through an electrolyte (a molten or dissolved ionic compound). The ions move towards the electrodes, where they react, and the compound decomposes.
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Where do the positive ions go in electrolysis?
The postive ions in the electrolyte go towards the cathode (the negative electrode) and gain electrons (will be reduced).
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Where do the negative ions go in electrolysis?
The negative ions in the electrolyte go towards the anode (postive electrode) and lose electrons (oxidised).
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What happens as the ions gain or lose electrons in electrolysis?
They form an uncharged element and are discharged from the electrolyte.
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Why can't an ionic solid be elctrolysed?
Because the ions are in fixed positions and can't move.
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What are the disadvantages of electrolysis?
It's expensive as lots of energy is required to melt the ore and produce the required current.
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What happens at the anode if halide ions are present?
Molecules of chlorine, bromine or iodine will be formed.
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What happens at the anode if no halide ions are present?
The OH- ions are discharged and the oxygen will be formed.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a base?

Back

A substance with a pH greater than 7.

Card 3

Front

What is an alkali?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the equation for neutralisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does acid strength tell you?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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m.hallam.rivas

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really helpful

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