ACIDS AND ALKALIS

  • Created by: sara.5
  • Created on: 16-04-18 18:18
What are all aqueous either?
Acids Alkaline or neutral
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How are hazard identified?
By international symbols
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What do they indicate?
The precautions that need to be taken when handling them
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What is the acidity and alkalinity of a solution measure by?
pH scale
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How can the pH of a solution be found by?
Universal indicator
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When are polyatomic ions formed?
When small groups of covalent bonds loose or gain electrons
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What do acids produce when they dissolve in water?
Exccess hydrogen ion(H+)
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The higher the concentration of hydrogen the more...
Acidic the solution
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What do alkalis produce when they dissolve in water?
Exccess hydroxide ions(OH-)
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The higher the concentration of hydroxide the more...
alkaline the solution
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How about Neutral ions?
They contain an equal or low concentration of hydrogen ion and hydroxide ions
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How do you work out the concentration?
Amount dissolved/Volume of solution
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If the concentration of Hydrogen ions is increased by a factor of 10 how much does the pH decreases?
By 1
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If the concentration of Hydrogen ions is decreases by a factor of 10 how much does the pH increase?
By1
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What is meant by Dissociate?
break up
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Which acids are strong?
Those with low values
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What happens to ions in a strong acid?
They dissociate completely when they dissolve in water and produce high concentration of hydrogen ions
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What happens to ions in a weak acid?
They do not dissociate completely in solution therefore do not produce a high concentration of hydrogen ions
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What are meant by bases?
Substances that neutralise acids to form salt and water
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Which substances are bases?
All metal oxides
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How does neutralisation with metal oxides occur?
Acids + Metal Oxide --> Salt + Water
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What happens during neutralisation?
Hydrogen ions in acid combines with oxides to form water so ph increases
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How are salts formed?
Salts are produced by replacing hydrogen with metal ions
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Why is excess base always added ?
To make sure all the acid is used up
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How do you make sure the salt is pure?
Mixture is filtered to remove residue
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Why do we evaporate water slowly?
So large crystals are formed
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What is a soluble base called?
Alkalis
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Which bases are soluble?
-Sodium Hydroxide and other group 1 Hydroxide-Calcium Hydroxide and other group 2 hydroxide
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What happens alkali is added to an acid?
The pH increases and may go higher than 7 if enough alkali is enough
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How can you obtain a dry soluble salt from its solution?
Crystallisation
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Why is it important to have a natural solution before evaporating the water?
Otherwise you will contaminate the salt with an excess of a reactant
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Then how do you obtain a neutral solution?
You need to mix an acid an alkali in correct proportions so that you end up with solution that contains only water and desired salt
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How could this be done?
Titration
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how does metal react with acids?
Metal + Acid --> Salt + Hydrogen
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In aqueous solution Hydrogen gains electrons show this in a ionic equation
2H+ + 2e--->H2
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What happens to metal atoms in aqueous solution?
react with oxygen and form metal ions
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Show this in a ionic equation (Mg)
Mg-->Mg2+ +2e
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What happens when acids react with metal carbonate?
Salt, Water and Carbon dioxide
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How do you know if CO2 is present?
Bubbles are released
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What happens when there is enough acids to react?
The solid metal carbonate disappears
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Card 2

Front

How are hazard identified?

Back

By international symbols

Card 3

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What do they indicate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the acidity and alkalinity of a solution measure by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can the pH of a solution be found by?

Back

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