ACE2034: Lecture 3

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  • Created on: 10-05-14 13:14
what happens in specific immunity the second and subsequent times it comes into contact with the same organism?
displays an enhanced response
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what is specific immunity mediated by?
both humoral and cellular response.
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what is Cell-mediated Immunity (CMI)?
used for any immune response in which phagocytic and/or cytotoxic cells play the major role
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what is the Humoral response?
non cell-mediated immunity, antibody production, secretory molecules
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what happens in the innate reaction?
neutrophils and macrophages going up, metabolism going up, acid catabolites going up, Oxygen concentration going down, Death of phagocytic cells and possibly parasites, release of hydrolytic enzymes, and possibly further death of parasites
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what are the 3 different cell types involved in the cellular response?
antigen-presenting cells (macrophages and dendritic cells), B cells (antibody production), T cells (communicating with chemical messengers: Lymphokines or interleukins)
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where are the peptides from broken down pathogens displayed?
macrophage surface and on MHC II molecules on the surface of B cells
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which cells will stimulate B cells to produce antibodies?
T cells
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what is the function of Th1 cells?
Inflammatory cells involved in the elimination of pathogens residing intra-cellularly in vesicular compartments
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what is the function of Th2 cells?
“true” helper cells required for antibody production by B cells
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Both Th1 and Th2 express which protein?
CD4
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what are the other names for cytotoxic T cells?
CD8 T cells or cytolytic T cells
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Cells harbouring pathogens where are recognised by these cells?
in the cytosol
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what is the killing mechanism of cytotoxic T cells?
it involves the activation of nucleases in the infected cells, which cleave host and viral DNA.
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B cells are responsible for producing what?
antibodies
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where are B cell derived from in birds?
Bursa of Fabricius
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what is the Bursa of Fabricius's equivalent in mammals?
the foetal liver, the bone marrow, and the mucosal associated lymphoid tissue
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what does TNF-a do?
suppresses viral replication and activates phagocytes
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what does interferon do?
inhibits viral replication and activates other cells which kill pathogens
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what do complement components and their products do?
cause destruction of micro-organism directly or with help of phagocytic cells
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what do fibronectin coats (opsonises) do?
bind to bacteria and promotes their rapid phagocytosis
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what does MHC stand for?
Major Histocompatibility Complex
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what is the MHC?
a region of DNA that codes for proteins associated with the immune response.
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What is the MHC called in man?
HLA and is on chromosome 6; in mice the MHC is called H-2 and is on chromosome 17.
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how many classes of proteins are there?
2, class I and class II
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what are the 4 stages of primary acquired immune response?
a) Lag phase b) Log phase c) Plateau d) Decline
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in primary acquired immune response, what are the antibodies produced?
primarily IgM
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what are the 3 stages of secondary acquired immune response?
a) Decline b) Log phase c) Decline
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in secondary acquired immune response what are the antibodies produced?
primarily IgG
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what are the Classes and subclasses of Antibody in human serum?
IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
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what does each Ig have?
H (heavy) and L (light) chains
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what happens in polyclonal response?
polyclonal antibodies react to many different epitopes on the antigen
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how many antibody clones will the B cell produce for each epitope?
50 to 300 antibodies of different affinity
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for example, if an antigen has 4 epitopes how many B cell clones will be produced?
between 200 and 1200 clones of B cells will be produced
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what is monoclonal response?
Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that are the same because they are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell, in contrast to polyclonal antibodies which are made from several different immune cells
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in monoclonal response do the antibodies have the same or different affinities affinities/specifities?
The same
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what do blood groups A and B entail, and what % of the population has each?
Group A (42%) have antigen A on their RBC and have anti-B antibodies in their serum Group B (8%) have antigen B on their RBC and have anti-A antibodies in their serum
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what do blood groups AB and O entail and what % of the population has each?
Group AB (3%) have antigen A and antigen B on their RBC and no anti-A or anti-B antibodies Group O (47%) have neither antigen A nor antigen B on their RBC, they have anti-A and anti-B antibodies
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how many different Rh antigens are there?
at least 30
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which antigens of the Rh blood group system are most important?
D, C, c, E, and e
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who many pairs of genes are involved in the Rh factor?
CDE/cde
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what % are Rh+ and Rh- in the US?
In the US around 15% are Rh- and 85% are Rh+
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which antigen or antigens do the + or - refer to?
the D antigen only
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Card 2

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what is specific immunity mediated by?

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both humoral and cellular response.

Card 3

Front

what is Cell-mediated Immunity (CMI)?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the Humoral response?

Back

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Card 5

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what happens in the innate reaction?

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