ACE2034: Lecture 1

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  • Created by: LMoney
  • Created on: 10-05-14 12:29
what are some examples of a system needing to recognise challenges as foreign or not foreign to itself?
1) Genetically related sponge colonies, 2) Plants (self-pollinating, cross-pollinating), 3) pregnancy
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What are the stages of infection?
1) invasion 2) multiplication 3) establishment- spread 4) pathogenesis (production of disease)
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what are physical barriers to pathogens in the body?
1) skin and mucosa 2) cilia 3) mucus
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where is mucus found?
1) epithelial cells of the gut 2) respiratory tract 3) genito-urinary (GU) tract
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what are the biochemical and chemical barriers to pathogens in the body?
1) acids (HCl in stomach, Lactic and proprionic acid in ******) 2) fatty acids (sebaceous glands) 3) lysozyme
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where is lysozyme found?
1) sweat 2) tears 3) other secretions
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for which pathogens is the port of entry the skin?
1) hookworms 2) schistosoma 3) warts
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for which pathogens is the port of entry mucosa?
1) rhinovirus (nasal epithelium) 2) influenze virus (upper respiratory tract) 3) salmonella spp (small intestine) 4) Neisseria gonorrhea (******, urethra)
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how can pathogens enter the body through damaged skin/mucosa?
1) burns 2) cuts and wounds 3) insect bites 4) animal bites 5) human behaviour
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how is pathogenesis caused?
1) secretion of toxins 2) endotoxins 3) direct killing of host cells 4) physical blockage 5) non-pathogen specific responses
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how do exotoxins act?
1) bind to molecules on host cell, 2) enter host cell, 3) kill it
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what part of the pathogen do endotoxins usually come from?
cell wall
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how to endotoxins act?
1) shed endotoxin 2) binds to receptor of certain host cells 3)stimulate host to produce products that damage other host cells & tissue
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what is an example of a kind of cell that endotoxins might target?
macrophages
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what are some example of how exotoxins act?
1) inhibition of protein synthesis 2) increase in cAMP 3) neurotoxins 4) enzymes that disrupt cell wall 5) super antigens
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Card 2

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What are the stages of infection?

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1) invasion 2) multiplication 3) establishment- spread 4) pathogenesis (production of disease)

Card 3

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what are physical barriers to pathogens in the body?

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Card 4

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where is mucus found?

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Card 5

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what are the biochemical and chemical barriers to pathogens in the body?

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