Absorption in the Digestive System

SGLT-1
Name of the co-transporter that transports Na+ and either glucose or galactose from the intestinal lumen to the enterocyte, a secondary active process
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GLUT-5
Name of the channel that fructose uses to move from intestinal lumen to the enterocyte via facilitated diffusion
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GLUT-2
Name of the channel that glucose, galactose and fructose use to move from the enterocyte into the blood via facilitated diffusion
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Endopeptidase
Protein digestive enzymes that attach to bonds in the centre of peptide chains. Examples: gastric pepsin, pancreatic trypsin
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Exopeptidase
Protein digestive enzymes that split amino acids, pac-man style. Examples: pancreatic enzymes, intestinal enzymes, enterocyte cytoplasm enzymes
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ADEK
Fat-soluble vitamins
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Emulsification
Step 1 of lipid digestion. Bile salts increase the surface area for digestive enzyme attack. Micelles keep fat suspended in solution and prevents the droplets from coalescing. This is NOT digestion
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Digestion
Step 2 of lipid digestion. Lipases break down triglycerides (by lipolysis) into glycerol and fatty acids because triglycerides are too large to be absorbed
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Absorption
Step 3 of lipid digestion. The fatty acids and glycerol can diffuse into the enterocyte without the use of carrier proteins
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Reesterification
Step 4 of lipid digestion. Triglycerides reform in the enterocyte. These can't pass into the blood due to eventual coalescence clogging up veins and arteries so a protein coat surrounds the triglycerides, forming a chylomicron
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Lymphatic uptake
Step 5 of lipid digestion. Chylomicron is too large to move into the blood, so it passes into the lacteal to enter the lymphatic system
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Aquaporin
Water channels that allow water movement transcellularly (through enterocytes)
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Crypt
Cells in the small intestine that can secrete water to keep the gut moist and aid the liquefaction of food
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Na ions
Absorption of water 1. - Na+ is actively absorbed into the enterocytes through the Na+/K+ATPase pump, water follows behind by osmosis. This increases concentration of electrolytes in gut lumen, so they follow behind through passive diffusion
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Food
Absorption of water 2. - Small units of food can act as osmolytes to encourage water to come out of the villus enterocytes and go into the gut lumen for liquefaction. After the food is removed, water can return to enterocytes through osmosis
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Oral rehydration therapy
H2O is best absorbed if Na+ is absorbed first, therefore Na+ is required. Na+ is best absorbed through a channel along with glucose, therefore glucose is required. NaCl + glucose + water is better than water alone
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name of the channel that fructose uses to move from intestinal lumen to the enterocyte via facilitated diffusion

Back

GLUT-5

Card 3

Front

Name of the channel that glucose, galactose and fructose use to move from the enterocyte into the blood via facilitated diffusion

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Protein digestive enzymes that attach to bonds in the centre of peptide chains. Examples: gastric pepsin, pancreatic trypsin

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Protein digestive enzymes that split amino acids, pac-man style. Examples: pancreatic enzymes, intestinal enzymes, enterocyte cytoplasm enzymes

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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