Abnormality, PSYA2

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Nikki
  • Created on: 12-12-12 23:08
Explain deviation from the ideal mental health and it's limitations
Jahoda: if you cannot achieve potential, adapt, cope with stress, make decisions, be realistic or have self respect then you are abnormal LIMITS: Very few achieve all six, cannot be measured scientifically, Cultural differences
1 of 42
What are the three approaches to defining abnormality?
1) Deviation from social norms 2) Failure to function adequately 3)Deviation from ideal mental health
2 of 42
Explain deviation from social norms and it's limitations
This is when someone does not act the way that is expected by the majority in society, social norms are desirable e.g not leaving the house. LIMITS: people can deviate without being abnormal, Social norms vary over time, place and culture
3 of 42
Explain failure to function adequately and it's limitations
This is when someone canno function in society, failure to cope e.g not having a job if you can't leave bed. LIMITS: You can function adequately but still be abnormal (Shipman), Inability to function can be due to social factors not abnormality
4 of 42
What are the proposed behaviours of failure to function adequately
Unpredictability- normal functioning is predictable, Maladaptive- cause harm to the individual e.g eating disorder, Observer discomfort- behaviours that make others feel uncomfortable e.e Tourettes syndrome
5 of 42
What are the four approaches to psychopathology?
Biological; Psychological:- Behavioural, Cognitive and Psychodynamic
6 of 42
What the three behavioural theories to treat psychopathology?
1) Classical Conditioning 2) Operant Conditioning 3) Social Learning
7 of 42
Briefly outline the behavioural approach
Abnormal behaviour is learnt, past experiences, role models etc
8 of 42
Explain the behavioural theory of Classical Conditioning
This can explain phobias. It works in 3 steps (example of someone bitten by a dog): 1) Pain produces fear 2) Dog and pain produces fear (association) 3) Dog alone produces fear.
9 of 42
Explain WATSON'S study proving classical conditioning
A baby, Little Albert was afraid of loud noises. He was exposed to both a loud noise and a (white) rat at the same time seven times. He associated the rat with the noise so when he saw just the rat he still became scared
10 of 42
Explain the behavioural theory of Operant Conditioning
A person learns abnormal behaviour through reward and punishment. Rewards strengthens behaviour whilst punishment weakens it. e.g people with anorexia may see compliments as a reward, so continue the abnormal behaviour
11 of 42
Explain the behavioural theory of Social Learning
A person learns by imitating role models, e.g if a parent has a fear their child may react the same way or in the media if only skinny people are shown then it may encourage anorexia
12 of 42
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the behavioural theory of psychopathology?
STRENGTHS: Proved in scientific experiments; Deals with behaviour that can be seen, not in the mind; Negative behaviour can be changed with reward and punishment WEAKNESSES: Theory is too simple, the human mind is complex
13 of 42
What is the therapy for the behavioural approach?
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION- A therapist replaces the fear of something e.g spiders with relaxation, the client is gradually exposed to the object. A hierarchy is made, they visualise the situation when relaxed they move on to more feared situations
14 of 42
What are strengths and weaknesses of therapy for the behavioural approach?
STRENGTHS: It has been successful in treating phobias; based on scientific theory, proved to work 60%-90%; WEAKNESSES: Does not deal with the cause; Ignores cognitive, negative thinking may prevent change; The client may become stressed
15 of 42
Briefly outline the biological approach
Believe abnormality is due the body:- Brain abnormality- brain diseases or structure; Infection- caused by bacteria that can spread; Neurotransmitters- Send messages from the brain causes a chemical imbalance Genetics- inheritance of mental illness
16 of 42
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the biological approach?
STRENGTHS: Scientific- based on proof from controlled experiments; Twin studies- genetics; Drug treatments are effective WEAKNESSES: Ignores social influences on behaviour e.g they can trigger disorders; Genetic are incomplete e.g comes after stress
17 of 42
What are two therapies for the biological approach?
1) Drugs 2) Eltro Convulsive Therapy
18 of 42
Explain the biological therapy of drugs
Drugs: 1) Anti-Psychotics: reduce hallucinations, changes dopamine and serotonin 2) Antidepressants- Improves serotonin and noradrenaline 3) Anti-anxiety drugs- Beta blockers: lower adrenaline reduces heart rate and pressure
19 of 42
What the strengths and weaknesses of the biological therapy of drugs?
STRENGTHS: effective, helps people carry on lives; Easy to use; Works more quickly than other therapies WEAKNESSES: Side effects; Addiction problems e.g valium; Doesn't remove the cause of the problem
20 of 42
Explain the biological therapy of Eltro Convulsive Therapy
ECT- Patient is given a muscle relaxant, electric currents are passed through the brain. Treatments are given over several weeks, used often when other methods don't work. Changes to neurotransmitters are not known
21 of 42
What the strengths and weaknesses of the biological therapy of Eltro Convulsive Therapy
STRENGTHS: 50% effective for those unsuccessful with other therapies WEAKNESSES: May cause memory loss; Ethical- informed consent; Unclear about how it works
22 of 42
Breifly outline the cognitive approach
Abnormal behaviour is due to faulty thinking, negative thinking, faulty body image etc Negative memories develop through unhappy experiences. Underestimation
23 of 42
What are the three cognitive theories to treat abnormality
1) BECK'S cognitive triad (depression) 2) Faulty body image (eating disorder) 3) FRITH'S model (schizophrenia)
24 of 42
Explain the cognitive theory of BECK'S cognitive triad
Depression- Negative thinking: starts with self, expands to negativity in everything then negativity regarding the future "I'm useless" "Useless at everything" "I'll always be useless"
25 of 42
Explain the cognitive theory of faulty body image
Eating disorder- think about themselves in the wrong way- faulty thinking/image i.e fatter than they are. Leads to problems in eating behaviour
26 of 42
Explain the cognitive theory of FRITH'S model
Schizophrenia- people experience auditory hallucinations because of faulty thinking, they think their own thoughts are coming from and external source, when it's in their head
27 of 42
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the cognitive approach?
STRENGTHS: Focuses on present rather than past events; It is successful; Identifies causes (long-term) WEAKNESSES: Blames individual regardless of socio-economic situation; Doesn't say the root of thoughts; Ignores biological causes
28 of 42
What is the therapy for the cognitive approach?
BECK'S cognitive therapy- Replaces irrational thoughts- Identifies negative thoughts, therapist challenges by focusing on positives- small positives change the clients view. Reality testing- compares thoughts with reality. Given goals
29 of 42
What are strengths and weaknesses of therapy for the cognitive approach?
STRENGTHS: considers both thought and behaviour; Deals with cause (long-term); Has been successful WEAKNESSES: Positive approach can be difficult for clients; Takes a lot of time; Client/therapist relationship must be strong
30 of 42
Breifly outline the psychodynamic approach
Abnormal behavior is due to early childhood experiences, personality development, relationships with parents etc
31 of 42
What are the three psychodynamic theories to treat abnormality
1) Conflict in personality 2) Early experiences 3) Defence mechanism
32 of 42
Explain the psychodynamic theory of conflict in personality
Personality consists of three parts: Id- instintive urges, ego- realistic part and superego- moral conscience. Ego balances the id and superego. Abnormal behaviour when the id or superego is too strong. Strong id= aggressive Superego= obsessive
33 of 42
Explain the psychodynamic theory of early experiences
Personality develops in childhood, experiences in childhood affects your personality development and adulthood. Difficult childhood experiences leads to abnormal behaviour
34 of 42
Explain the psychodynamic theory of defence mechanism
Defence mechanisms used against anxiety (a) Repression- unpleasant memories put to the back of mind, resurfacing of the memory leads to depression/anxiety (b) Displacement-Moving a fear to something less threatening, this can result in phobias
35 of 42
Explain FREUD'S case study into defence mechanisms (displacement)
Had a phobia of horses. He was afraid of horses, to help deal with anxiety he displaced a fear he had of his father to horses
36 of 42
What are the strengths and weaknesses of the psychodynamic approach?
STRENGTHS: First theory to offer psychological explanations; Empathises the role of early childhood; successful therapies WEAKNESSES: Based on biased case studies- adults with anxiety; No scientific evidence of id etc;Does not consider recent events
37 of 42
What are the three therapies for the pyschodynamic approach?
1) Free association 2) Dream analysis 3) Projective tests
38 of 42
Explain the psychodynamic therapy of free association
The client talks about anything that comes to their mind, the therapist encourages them to talk about childhood and then explores key points further. The client then deals with the original anxiety/
39 of 42
Explain the psychodynamic therapy of dream analysis
The content of a client's dream is analysed, to identify problems. The client can discuss these to reduce anxiety
40 of 42
Explain the psychodynamic therapy of projective tests
The clients are given ambiguous pictures and asked what they can see e.g ink blots. The therapist can identify the client's anxieties from their answers
41 of 42
What are strengths and weaknesses of therapies for the psychodynamic approach?
STRENGTHS: Deals with causes; Considers emotional responses; Has had many successes WEAKNESSES: Not scientific as it involves subjective interpretation; Clients need to be willing to discuss problems; Takes time to recover hidden anxieties
42 of 42

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the three approaches to defining abnormality?

Back

1) Deviation from social norms 2) Failure to function adequately 3)Deviation from ideal mental health

Card 3

Front

Explain deviation from social norms and it's limitations

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Explain failure to function adequately and it's limitations

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the proposed behaviours of failure to function adequately

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Abnormality resources »